Complete Research Proposal: Topic Proposal with First Source

Complete Research Proposal: Topic Proposal with First Source

Complete Research Proposal Outline of research proposal was reviewed by the professor and she made comments so that the things that were wrong can be addressed on the Complete Research Proposal.

Please, read “Professor’s Comment” document to make the changes specified by the professor ( read comments on document)

Also, read “Outline of Complete Research” in order to create the Complete Research Proposal.

Remember to only utilize the links included on the previous stages of the research paper which are also inside this documents.

Complete Research Proposal

4. Research Proposal

Stage 4: Complete Research Proposal

Take your approved outline, and use it to develop a full APA-style research proposal. Please keep in mind how important it is to use course terms (e.g., statistic, sample, research, and theory, variable) correctly, to demonstrate critical thinking in your selection and synthesis of relevant research articles, and to follow directions and use APA style precisely. It is vital to your success in this assignment that you are directly and thoroughly responsive to all feedback given to date.

Format:

Follow APA style precisely. Include all required elements (listed above) in the order listed above.

Contents:

·

1. Cover sheet

2. Abstract (150–200 words)

3. Key words (5–7 key terms)

4. Introduction section (1–2 pages)

· Introduce the topic, establishing its context

· Justify the significance of studying the topic

· State your research question and hypothesis

· Identify and briefly describe the proposed research design

· Provide a “roadmap” of the rest of the paper

5. Literature Review section (3–7 pages of text)

· Start with the level-1 APA-style heading “Literature Review”

· Provide an introductory paragraph for the section

· Include a level-2 APA-style subheading “Existing Research”

· Summarize your five research articles topic by topic rather than study by study, covering these six topics for each article

· Research question(s)/hypothesis (or hypotheses)

· Theoretical framework/orientation

· Research design

· Sampling

· Independent and dependent variable measurement

· Key findings

· Include a level-2 APA-style subheading “Summary of the Existing Research”

· Synthesize the five studies in such a way as to lead logically to your hypothesis and research design in the next section.

6. Methodology section (3-6 pages)

· Start with the level-1 APA-heading “Methodology”

· Drawing from your literature review, articulate the hypothesis to be tested in your research proposal

· Identify and describe the research design you will use to test your hypothesis, and explain why this research design is the most appropriate. Research designs options include experiment, survey, and content analysis.

· Include a level-2 APA-style subheading “Sampling”

· Propose an appropriate, specific sampling design

· Identify your population

· Identify your unit of analysis

· Specify your targeted sample size

· Include a level-2 APA-style subheading “Measurements”

· Provide an introductory paragraph to this subsection

· Include a level-3 APA-style subheading “Dependent variable”

· Specify the name of your key dependent variable

· Identify its categories and codes

· Include a level-3 APA-style subheading “Independent variable”

· Specify the name of your key independent variable

· Identify its categories and codes

· Include a level-3 APA-style subheading “Control variables”

· One at a time, specify the name of at least two logical control variables

· In the same order, identify their categories and codes

· Include a level-2 APA-style subheading “Limitations”; cover causality, validity, reliability, and ethics

· Discuss the prsed study’s potential strengths in at least one paragraph

· Discuss the proposed study’s potential weaknesses in at least one paragraph

7. References

Complete Research Proposal

Stage 1: Topic Proposal with First Source

Propose the topic for your research proposal. It must be unquestionably criminological, be explanatory, be policy-oriented (i.e., evaluation research), lend itself to hypothesizing and empirical investigation, allow you to address directly all of these assignment requirements. Using complete sentences—along with proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation—and answer the following questions in the order they are asked below. Number each new question. (Question 9 does not require a complete-sentence response.)

1-What is your general topic? What is your proposed unit of analysis?

The topic I have suggested for my research proposal is Race in relation to crime. My purpose will be to define whether there is a relationship to why crimes occur by comparing crime rates between different races. Does one race tend to commit more crimes than the other? and if so Why ? I plan on utilizing “Race” as the independent variable and “crime” as the dependent one

2-What explanatory, policy-oriented research question would you ask to get started on this topic? For example, “Does drug education reduce juvenile drug use?”

Is there a relationship between race and the commission of crimes?

3- What will be your independent variable?

Independent variable: Race

4-What will be your dependent variable?

Dependent variable: Crime

5-What would be your first source for your literature review? Provide a working hyperlink to the research article along with the full APA-style Reference-list entry for it.

First source for literature review:

Butler, P. (2010). One Hundred Years of Race and Crime. Retrieved July 9, 2018, from https://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=7368&context=jclc

6- Provide a Justified Sampling Process for your proposal

I will use the Stratified Sampling process because I will narrow down my population into different groups among races.

Stage 2: Hypothesis with 5 Articles and References List

1-State your explanatory Hypothesis. (Professor mentioned I needed to come up with a better hypothesis than this one below)

Explanatory Hypothesis: African Americans commit crimes at a higher rate per capita than Whites do

2- Provide a working hyperlink to your first research article

Working hyperlink 1: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/480250/bulletin.pdf

3- Provide a working hyperlink to your second research article

Working hyperlink 2: https://www.realclearpolicy.com/articles/2017/02/16/race_and_rising_violent_crime.html

4- Provide a working hyperlink to your third research article.

Working hyperlink 3:

https://www.encyclopedia.com/law/legal-and-political-magazines/race-and-crime

5- Provide a working hyperlink to your fourth research article.

Working hyperlink 4:

http://www.unz.com/runz/race-and-crime-in-america/

6-Provide a working hyperlink to your fifth research article.

Working Hyperlink 6:

https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/pager/files/ajs_quillianpager.pdf

7- Provide your complete APA-style References list.

Cherry R (February 16, 2017) Race and Rising Violent Crime. Retrieved July 23, 2018 from https://www.realclearpolicy.com/articles/2017/02/16/race_and_rising_violent_crime.html

Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice “Race and Crime” Retrieved July 23, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/law/legal-and-political-magazines/race-and-crime

Ministry of Justice (2015) Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2014. Retrieved July 23, 2018, from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/480250/bulletin.pdf

Quillian L. & Pager Devah (2001) Black Neighbors, Higher Crime? The role of Racial Stereotypes in Evaluations of Neighborhood Crime. Retrieved from https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/pager/files/ajs_quillianpager.pdf

Unz, R., Kersey, P., Reed, F., Taylor, J., Cathey, B. D., & Derbyshire, J. (July 20, 2013). Race and Crime in America. Retrieved July 23, 2018, from http://www.unz.com/runz/race-and-crime-in-america/

Stage 3: Outline of Complete Research Proposal

Provide a detailed sentence outline of the complete research proposal (Instructions on separate document). Treat your hypothesis as the thesis statement. Include APA-style in-text citations throughout

FormatInclude a heading in the upper left margin of the first page containing: your first and last name, the semester and year, and the name of the assignment. Double space, with 1-inch margins, left-aligned text, and 12-point Times New Roman font throughout. Number all pages, including the first one, and set the page numbers in Times New Roman.

Contents:

1. Introduction section

a.       Introduce the topic, establishing its context

b.      Justify the significance of studying the topic

c.       State your research question and hypothesis

d.      Identify and briefly describe the proposed research design

e.      Provide a “roadmap” of the rest of the paper

2. Literature Review section, titled “Literature Review”

· Provide an introductory paragraph for the section

· Subsection titled “Existing Research”

· Summarize your five research articles topic by topic rather than study by study, covering these six topics for each article

i.      Research question(s)/hypothesis (or hypotheses)

ii.      Theoretical framework/orientation

iii.      Research design

iv.      Sampling

v.      Independent and dependent variable measurement

vi.      Key findings

· Subsection titled “Summary of the Existing Research”

· Synthesize the five studies in such a way as to lead logically to your (a) hypothesis and (b) research design in the next section.

3. Methodology section, titled “Methodology”

· Drawing from your literature review, articulate the hypothesis to be tested in your research proposal

· Drawing from your literature review, identify and describe the research design you will use to test your hypothesis, and explain why this research design is the most appropriate. Research designs options include: experiment, survey, or content analysis. Check with the professor if you would like to propose a different research design.

· Subsection titled “Sampling”

i.      Propose an appropriate, specific sampling design

ii.      Identify your population

iii.      Identify your unit of analysis

iv.      Specify your targeted sample size

· Subsection titled “Measurements”

i.      Provide an introductory paragraph to this subsection

ii.      Sub-subsection titled “Dependent variable”

1.       Specify the name of your key dependent variable

2.      Identify its categories and codes

iii.      Sub-subsection titled “Independent variable”

1.       Specify the name of your key independent variable

2.      Identify its categories and codes

iv.      Sub-subsection “Control variables”

1.       One at a time, specify the name of at least two logical control variables

2.      In the same order, identify their categories and codes

· Subsection titled “Limitations”

i.      Cover causality, validity, reliability, and ethics

1.       Discuss the proposed study’s potential strengths in at least one paragraph

2.      Discuss the proposed study’s potential weaknesses in at least one paragraph

4. References list (in APA style on a separate sheet of paper at the end of the outline)

Complete Research Proposal

Christian Castillo

D2 Summer 2018

Outline of Complete Research Proposal 1

RACE AND CRIME 5

1. Introduction

a. Topic introduction and context.

Racial discrimination, which is the way of targeting accused based on race prominence, could be responsible for the increase in rate of crime arrest. Subcultural theorists argue that poor people, also referred to as have-nots, normally reside in areas where the social respect is subject to violence and physical strength and this habit promote crime. More to this, race impacts who gets arrested, and some pieces of evidence show that minorities are disproportionate form crime statistics (Walker, Spohn, & DeLone, 2012). It is official that high rates of arrest, conviction, and incarceration of these minorities may be as a result of criminal justice actors. It is interesting to note that race and social stratification are related in the aspect that nonwhite form lower class and this poorer class lack the genuine ways to obtain goods and they choose to join crime.

b. Significance

Physical injury and death are grouped as homicide, and known as the biggest cause of death amongst the youths. According to the “U.S Public health” brutality is a chief health issues which is challenging the Americans. Crime is intertwined with acts of violence. Secondly, crime is associated with loss, such as vandalism, arson, and environmental destruction. Crimes also pose economic cost through expense linked with transfer of property through robbery, during crime, criminal violence brings about additional medical cost of attending to the victims. There is another form of cost: cost of protection, which includes funds used to guard dogs and surveillance systems. According to studies, race has a huge impact on crime, thus scientists and scholars have tried to uncover what triggers people with different skin color to engage in criminal acts. All these implications make it important to study the relation of race to crime with a mind of reducing the cost.

c. Research question and hypothesis.

Arguably, black people are more likely to engage in criminal activities than white people. Does this stereotype have any relevance to it? A black man in the US today has three times a higher chance of going to prison as well. There has to be a relationship that supports both statements. Comment by Microsoft Office User: State your hypothesis clearly.

d. Proposed research design

The research will use data collected by different institution to evaluate the relationship between crime and race. It will describe offending action of different races within the sample population and this will be used for descriptive purpose. Second, the explanation will predict race pattern in relation to crime. The analysis builds on existing records of crime documenting racial pattern. Comment by Microsoft Office User: How will the data be collected for analysis? Existing statistics?

e.      Roadmap

The remainder of this research paper stereotypes the concerning issue of race in relation to crime. To what extent are blacks and other races associated with crime? How has stereotype affect issue of crime in minority? To answer these question, the research will involve the Stratified Sampling method because the different racial groups will be highlighted within the population.

2. Literature Review

It is said that men and youth have extreme crime rate and it is appreciated that certain racial groups more so the blacks have higher crime rate compared to whites. In particular, pieces of research shows that African American and the Latinos have advanced street offenses compared to white. For instance, although African American form 13% of America population, they account for 39% of all arrests made for violent crime (Unnever & Gabbidon, 2011)

· Existing Research

1) Research by (Yeisley & Krebs, 2018) used of information from “Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Crime Victims Survey (NCVS), to investigate the relationship between race and crime.

1. Hypothesis: Blacks and Hispanic engage in criminal activities more than their white counterparts.

2. Theoretical framework: Moreover, these researcher used information from Add Health to investigate ethnic difference and race in violence. Comment by Microsoft Office User: What theoretical assumptions were the basis for this study?

3. Independent and dependent variable measurement: the dependent variable in this research is crime while independent variable is race.

4. Key findings: The research’s finding indicates that African Americans and Hispanics have higher chances of involvement in crime compared to Whites. Secondly, the research supports the idea that the difference in crime can be explained using a variation in community disadvantage that aims for African Americans. Thirdly, it was established that the difference between minority in violence (Hispanics and Blacks) was not evident.

2) Study by (Butler, 2010) used self-records to determine the connection between race and crime.

· Research question: Why do Blacks report more incidences of crime in the US

· Theoretical framework: The research has a slight agreement in self-reports and police data for blacks. The three finding link race to poverty among the minority.

· Key finding: Black people do not report incidences of crime as readily as Whites do, and finally, although there is ethnic and racial differences between white and blacks, subjects with official contacts more often report crime.

3) The above pieces of research are supported by ( Ministry of Justice publication, 2014) who studied race in relation to crime in Chicago.

I. Theoretical framework: The statistics shows general, Black and Asian groups appear to be majority at most stages all over the crime scenes, unlike the White ethnic group imply that immigrants generation and neighborhood social context to greater extend have effect of crime demographic characteristics.

II. Research design: Data on number of arrest based on race.

III. Key findings: the researcher discovered that the chance of crime activities were 85.0% more for blacks paralleled to their white neighbor, whereas Latino crime rate was approximately 10% less. The research also found out that 60% of the crime committed by the blacks can be attributed to marital status of involved parents.

4) According to research by (Cherry, 2017), Latinos and African American are poorer compared to whites on ordinary case and this poverty adds to increase in crime level.

· Theoretical framework: From this position, it can be argued that the reason why the minority commits crimes at a higher rate is because of the increase in poverty and the subsequent ethnic segregation (McCarthy & Hagan, 2003).

· Key finding: It was found that these group of minorities live in urban areas which is a contributing factor to advanced crime rates. Third, the ethnic prejudice, which the minorities encounter, lead to frustration and anger which in return promote criminal behavior.

5) According to (Quillian & Pager, 2001), 52% of white rated black as six in a scale of 1-10 of violence.

· Key finding: There is an evidence that links the African American race and brutality. Contrary to this view, studies shows that groups are less likely to evaluate favorably other races than their own. In Chicago, there is a higher perception of a close connection between Black adolescents and delinquency. This may not be correct.

· Research questions: Is the presence of the minority group (Black) linked to increase in crime? To what extent is race associated to crime in the neighborhood?

· Hypothesis: Presence of black men is associated with crime.

· Summary of the Existing Research

In appreciating the research finding on racial difference in street crime level, it is key to note that researchers believe that the White perpetrate most white-collar offenses and more so company crime because the white lead and manage these firms. By extension it can be stated that as social stratification affect the kind of crime that individuals commit, race also contribute to the nature of crime. The white, wealthy people do engage in crimes, but they are more likely to engage in corporate crimes (White Collar). As opposed, African Americans and Hispanics tend to rule the engagements of street crime. Comment by Microsoft Office User: This paragraph should provide the justification for the proposed study that follows – the theoretical basis, methodology, sampling technique, variables and how the findings of the proposed study will further this line of research.

3. Methodology

Previous research is helpful in evaluating the different involvement of race in crimes. Perhaps the above pieces of research relied on aggregate data. Such type of research give useful though secondary proof about connection between crime and race. The aim of this paper is to arrive at enhanced perceptive on relationship between races and criminal actions.

· Sampling

I. Sampling design: The process of stratified sampling will lead to relative rate Index. Simply put, when data is sample the rate of ethnic group will be compared to determine where there is significant difference from each other. Comment by Microsoft Office User: This is unclear.

II. Population: This research will be based in a minimum of 20 objects and data pulled from the national statistics. Some of the main considerations will be: court decision, arrest, proceeding at magistrate law court, beliefs at magistrate court, plea at crown court, and proven reoffending. Comment by Microsoft Office User: 20 is a very small sample size if you are using existing statistics? Statistical analysis is not likely with a sample size of 20. What is your study population, sampling frame, unit of analysis?

· Measurement

Stratified sampling has the advantage of getting particular outcome instead of assumption. The data for stratified sampling will come from many management sources where data are extracted easily. The rate of crime will be determined at granular level from combined data based on age, ethnicity, sex and primary offence.

· Categories : The categories used will be ethnic groups (black, white and Asian) these ethnic group classification will possibly conceal complexities which may surface in more detailed ethnic level.

· Independent variable: The race of offenders

· Dependent variable: Number of time people engage in crime

· Limitations

In this research, the crimes to be highlighted are solely street crime, in which white collar crimes will be omitted. Institutionalized racism and crime will only be addressed as needed.

· Weakness: There is a threat in the finding because it relies on already collected information that has potential methodological errors. This imply the study could have used questionable statistic.

· Reliability: Comparatively this research finding is based on numbers in order to make it as reliable as it can possibly be.

References: Butler, P. (2010). One Hundred Years of Race and Crime. THE JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL LAW & CRIMINOLOGY, 100(3), 1043-1050. Cherry, R. (2017). Race and Rising Violent Crime. Retrieved August 06, 2018, from https://www.realclearpolicy.com/articles/2017/02/16/race_and_rising_violent_crime.html McCarthy, B., & Hagan, J. (2003). Sanction effects, violence, and native North American street youth. In Violent crime: Assessing race and ethnic differences (pp. 117–137). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ministry of Justice publication. (2014). Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2014. Retrieved August 6, 2018, from Ministry of Justice publication: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/480250/bulletin.pdf Quillian, L., & Pager, D. (2001). Black Neighbors, Higher Crime? The Role of Racial Stereotypes in Evaluations of Neighborhood Crime. Retrieved from https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/pager/files/ajs_quillianpager.pdf Unnever, J. D., & Gabbidon, S. L. (2011). A theory of African American offending: Race, racism, and crime. New York, NY: Routledge. Walker, S., Spohn, C., & DeLone, M. (2012). The color of justice: Race, ethnicity, and crime in America. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Yeisley, M., & Krebs, C. P. (2018). Race And Crime. Retrieved August 6, 2018, from Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice: https://www.encyclopedia.com/law/legal-and-political-magazines/race-and-crime

Chris,

This is a work in progress. Be sure to include a section on causality, ethics, reliability, and validity. Be sure to address the areas where I have commented. Keep it simple and be sure to do a thorough proofread/edit prior to final submission.

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CHOOSE one (1) country from the three below and read the requirements regarding your assignment.

END-OF-SEMESTER TERM PAPER
1) CHOOSE one (1) country from the three below and read the requirements regarding your
assignment. At this time you do not have to inform the professor which country you have
selected; however, you should begin searching for information on your selected country in the
table below:

LIST OF SELECTED COUNTRIES
WITH HIGH ADULT AND CHILD MORTALITY RATES
• Bolivia
• Afghanistan
• Egypt
2) WRITE a paper (at least 1500 words) on the country that you selected. THE PAPER IS DUE
AT THE END OF THE SEMESTER PER THE ANNOUNCED DUE DATE. See the Nursing
Student Writing Guidelines Checklist for paper requirements. The paper must address the
following (use the sections below as headings to organize your paper):
Title of Paper (top of page 2, centered)
Country with High Mortality Rates: [Name of Country]
PAPER HEADING: [Level 1] Introduction: [Name of Country] Why selection?
PAPER HEADING: [Level 2] Location/Geography
PAPER HEADING: [Level 2] Population
PAPER HEADING: [Level 2] Government
PAPER HEADING: [Level 2] Economy
PAPER HEADING: [Level 2] State of Health (Diseases/Violence/Accidents)
PAPER HEADING: [Level 2] Culture/Traditional Medicine
PAPER HEADING: [Level 2] Healthcare System and Delivery Include:
Governmental health-related agencies and health regulatory organizations. [Level
3] An example is the Ministry of Health and/or other governmental agencies in the country that
are health-related.
Healthcare personnel and hospitals. [Level 3] Total number of nurses and physicians
and/or the number of nurses and physicians per 100,000 population. In addition, the number of
hospitals/hospital beds found in the country.
Nursing education system and accrediting organizations. [Level 3] Number (and
name) of schools that train nurses, if any. Note if nursing schools are accredited or standards
are overseen by a governmental agency.
Nursing associations. [Level 3] (if any). Do internet search. See also module 2 (Sigma
Theta Tau International [STTI] and International Council of Nurses [ICN]) websites for links to
nursing organizations in various countries.
PAPER HEADING: [Level 2] Health Priorities Based on the above information and global
health organizations, including non-governmental organizations, what are the health priorities
for this country? Discuss.
PAPER HEADING: [Level 1] Conclusion: Nursing Implications How can the nursing profession
and nurses working in this country play a part in addressing those priorities? Discuss.
PAPER HEADING: [Level 1] References [top of new page, centered]
To get you started on your paper: ( Needed to be done for an A paper)
a) Do internet and library searches using the name of your selected country and the sections
listed above as “keywords.”
b) Find the official websites of the global organizations/agencies and look up your selected
country for the most current health information and statistics. Begin with the World Health
Organization (WHO).
c) Determine which organizations/agencies (United Nations, non-governmental, nursing) are
active in your selected country.
d) Investigate the situation of nurses and nursing (nursing personnel, nursing organizations/
associations, migration, etc.) in your selected country.
e) Use the above headings in your paper. In-text citations and a reference list MUST be found in
your paper.
3) In-text citations and a reference list MUST be found in your paper. See the Nursing Student
Writing Guidelines Checklist for APA formatting.

Point-Counterpoint Essay Assignment

Point-Counterpoint Essay Assignment – 

Use the outline you wrote last week to write your final essay this week.

Drug issues are seldom black or white, right or wrong. Some of the most hotly debated questions of our day concern the use, misuse, and abuse of drugs. These issues deserve a good deal of critical thought.

Use the outline you created last week (see separate instruction document for the outline) to construct a 3-5 page point/counterpoint (persuasive) essay using the arguments and sources you already researched. In the essay, you will present opposing points of view on the issue you already chose from the approved list. You should present both sides in a fair way by discussing them objectively and in equal detail.

PLEASE READ THE GRADING RUBRIC FOR THIS ASSIGNMENT BEFORE YOU BEGIN. COMPARE YOUR ESSAY TO THE GRADING RUBRIC BECAUSE THAT IS WHAT WILL BE USED TO GRADE YOUR ESSAY.

Essay Structure

PLEASE READ THE SAMPLE ESSAY FOR THIS ASSIGNMENT BEFORE YOU BEGIN WRITING. COMPARE YOUR ESSAY TO THE SAMPLE ESSAY BEFORE YOU SUBMIT IT.

A good essay will include the following:

  • A title that clearly states the issue as a question. Take your title from the list of approved topics and just copy what it says there word for word.
  • An interesting introductory paragraph that clearly introduces both sides of the argument and draws the reader in. It does not contain your opinion (do not say “I think, I believe, in my opinion”).
  • The first section contains 3 strong arguments FOR the issue (the point). ***Each of the 3 arguments must cite a source.
  • The second section contains 3 strong arguments AGAINST the issue (counterpoint). ***Each of the 3 arguments must cite a source.
  • A closing paragraph in which you summarize both sides of the issue and then state your opinion on the issue.

Writing Style and Format

  • Write clearly and concisely. Use as few words as possible to make your arguments. Make your essay easy to read by eliminating extra unnecessary words, phrases and sentences. Get straight to the point.
  • Do not try to sound formal. Write as if you were talking – very simply and easily.
  • You are encouraged to submit your essay to the National University Writing Center for their expert guidance BEFORE you submit your final essay. You can learn a lot from a half hour session with them and it will improve your grade.
  • Check your work. Use spell check and then carefully proofread your essay at least once to catch spelling, punctuation and grammatical mistakes. Read your essay out loud to catch any missing words, extra words and awkward-sounding sentences. Show your essay to someone else to see if they understand what you are trying to say. Take pride in your work and strive to be mistake-free.
  • Do NOT use any quotations. Instead, paraphrase (write in your own words) the ideas or information and cite the source.
  • Type in Times New Roman, Size 12 font, double-spaced, 1-inch margins all around.

 

References

Use at least 4 total sources for your arguments. Each of the 2 arguments for and the 2 arguments against against must have at least one source.

At least 2 of the sources must support your point (for). They must come from peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports or textbooks.

At least 2 of the sources must support your counterpoint argument (against). They must come from peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports or textbooks.

Information from the course textbook is allowed, but does not count as one of your four required sources above. Other additional sources are allowed, but they also do not count toward your four required sources. Sources must be recent (published within the past 5-10 years).

You can use the National University Library database to search for sources.

Ø Public Health Advocacy

Ø Federal

Ø CQ Press Library (SAGE)

Ø CQ Researcher Plus Archive

Ø Browse Topics

Ø Health

Ø Substance Abuse

Select one of the titles

Click Pro/Con on the left side to view the arguments for and against.

Use APA 6th edition format for your References list.

 

Why all nurses should be considered leaders and the secular approach to leadership in comparison to servant leadership

Journaling provides a valuable tool for recording, reflecting on, and reviewing your learning. This approach provides an opportunity for you to “connect the dots” and observe the relationships between and among activities, interactions, and outcomes.

Unlike a personal journal of thoughts and feelings, this Leadership Journal is a record of your activities, assessments, and learning related to this academic experience.

Journal entries should include a record of the number of hours spent with your nurse leader each week.

Write a journal entry of 1,000-1,500 words on the subject of power, including the following:

1. Provide observations and thoughts on the activities in Weeks 1-2.

· Why all nurses should be considered leaders and the secular approach to leadership in comparison to servant leadership

2. Identify your given “power” at your workplace or in your professional life. What is your greatest contribution in the lives of others?

3. Find three people with whom you interact professionally and ask them to affirm the influence you bring to their lives. How and why did you choose the individuals? What pearls of wisdom did they share that you had not considered?

4. Reflect on at least two things you learned from the “Issue of Power” video.

From a financial perspective, briefly describe the concept of a business

Chapter 1:

Q1- From a financial perspective, briefly describe the concept of a business.  List and explain the differences between a business & pure charity.  Please respond to at least 2 classmates post.

Student 1:

Business is depending on buying and selling for profit. When a business is a personal or a company should determine goals that lead to develop the business and focus for the goal. In the other hand, Charity is depending on the provision of a range of humanitarian services to individuals in need. It is also known that a group of individuals, associations and institutions provide support and assistance to people with different needs, such as food, medicine and shelter, and others. Also, does not depend on achieving any financial gain; it is a work linked to good and charity to others.

Student 2:

My theory about business would be, business is a person or group of people idea about making an investment to improve his or their income. Charity is a person or more than one person is opinion to help others with some amount of money. Charity is helping others with their needs, and business is an idea of making more money.

Chapter 2:

Q2- If you could change ONE thing about our health care system, what would that be? Please provide detailed explanation.  Reply to the post of 2 classmates.

Student 1:

If I could change one thing in the U.S. health care system it would be that employer groups, payers, and government systems would all come together to make it simpler for Americans who are seeking health coverage. I am from a rural area in Kentucky and have seen so many people neglect their health because they could not go to certain providers and would have to travel hours to see a doctor in their network. These people know that they need to see a doctor, but may not be able to take off from work to travel to the doctors or may not have transportation to travel that far. This is a major reason that emergency rooms are overflowing with people because they have gone so long without seeing a doctor (because there are none in their network) so they can no longer stand the pain or sickness. I think if all providers could work together and be on the same playing field it would cut down costs and help people get the treatment they need in a timely manner.

Student 2:

If I could change one thing about the current health care system in America it would be accessibility for consumers. Accessibility to health care affects many different aspects of health care, such as health care cost, emergency room use, overall health of the nation, and many others. Many things affect one’s access to health care, including geographical location (rural vs. urban area), insurance coverage, and income. Improving the accessibility of health care can potentially lower total health care costs and even improve the overall health of the nation.

Retirement And Estate Planning

Retirement And Estate Planning

  Retirement And Estate Planning Short questions answers.

1. Traditional 401(k) plans can be funded entirely through salary reductions by employees, enabling employers to bear no additional cost for employee compensation.

True

2. A cash balance plan establishes a separate fund for each plan participant.

False

3. Defined benefit plans provide more benefit security than do age-weighted or cross-tested plans.

True

4. All group insurance programs offered to employees must comply with ERISA reporting and disclosure requirements.

False

5. A cross-tested plan uses a fixed age-weighted formula. The plan is designed to maximize benefits for a firm’s highly compensated employees while providing whatever is necessary for remaining employees to satisfy nondiscrimination regulations.

False

6. An employee cannot be covered under both a defined benefit and a defined contribution plan.

False

7. A self-employed person with less than 10 employees can use a money purchase plan to fund his or her own retirement.

True

8. Unlike a traditional IRA, a Roth IRA contribution is not restricted by active participation in an employer’s retirement plan.

True

9. An early distribution penalty can be assessed on Roth IRA withdrawals.

True

10. Account holders with more than one Roth IRA can treat them as separate accounts when calculating tax consequences of distributions from any of them.

False

11. A trust cannot provide for creditor protectioninsurance

True

12. Including a spendthrift clause is recommended for children with money management or substance abuse problems.

True

13. All of the following are true regarding tax implicatons of cash balance plans, except

a.  employer contributions to the plan are deductible when made

b.  taxation of the employee on employer contributions is deferred

c.  the plan is not subject to minimum funding rules of the Internal Revenue Code

d.  certain employers who adopt a cash balance plan may be eligible for a business tax credit up to $500

e.  employees may make voluntary contributions to a “deemed IRA” established under the plan

14. Which of the following is (are) true regarding elective deferrals in a Section 401(k)?

a. elective deferrals are not subject to Social Security and Federal Unemployment payroll taxes

b. elective deferrals are always made on an after-tax basis

c. if the company elects to have a safe harbor plan, elective deferrals must meet the actual deferral percentage test

d. account funds can be withdrawn without a premature distribution penalty if the employee becomes disabled or dies

e. since employees elect the amount of funds to defer, nondiscrimination tests do not apply to elective deferrals

15. Which of the following types of employer plans are exempt from most or all ERISA provisions?

a.  plans of state, federal, or local governments or governmental organizations

b.  plans of churches, synagogues, or related organizations

c.  plans maintained solely to comply with workers’ compensation, unemployment compensation, or disability insurance laws

d. all of the above

e.  none of the above because no employer plans are exempt from ERISA provisions

16.  Irrevocable Life Insurance Trusts (ILIT) are primarily designed to ensure that the death benefit is excludable from the insured’s federal gross estate.

a. true

b. false

17. Are all of the items listed below reasons why having a will is important? (True or False)  True

  • The state directs      how the decedent’s property is transferred
  • A spouse’s share of      the decedent’s estate may be equal to a child’s
  • Children may be      treated equally although not equitably
  • May require the      appointment of an administrator who will usually have to furnish a surety      bond, thereby raising the costs of administration
  • The administrator of      the estate is determined by the court

18. Paul owns the following property:

  1. Boat (fee simple)
  2. Condominium on the      beach (tenancy in common with his brother and sister)
  3. House and two cars      with his wife, Karen (tenancy by the entirety)
  4. Checking account      with his son, William (POD)
  5. Karate business      (JTWROS with his partner, Mike)

Which items will go through probate?

  1. Karate business      (JTWROS with his partner, Mike)
  2. House and two cars      with his wife, Karen (tenancy by the entirety)
  3. Checking account      with his son, William (POD)

Because it has beneficiary designation

Which property ownership could he sell without the consent of a co-owner?

  1. Boat (fee simple)

Because the owner have full ownership of the property

19. Two brothers have consulted you about the purchase of a lakefront cottage. The brothers plan to use the cottage on a seasonal basis. They are unsure of how they should title the property. Which of the following items of information do you need to obtain before making a recommendation?

  1. The purchase price of the cottage
  2. How much each brother plans to contribute toward the purchase of the      cottage
  3. Whether the brothers want their interest in the cottage to pass      under their wills when they die
  4. 1 and 2
  5. 3 only
  6. 1, 2, and 3
  7. 2 and 3

20. Are all of the items listed below reasons why having a will is important? (True or False) True

  • The state directs how the decedent’s property is transferred
  • A spouse’s share of the decedent’s estate may be equal to a child’s
  • Children may be treated equally although not equitably
  • May require the appointment of an administrator who will usually      have to furnish a surety bond, thereby raising the costs of administration
  • The administrator of the estate is determined by the court

21. Annual additions to an age-weighted plan include

a. employer contributions to participants’ accounts

b. employee contributions to own account

c. forfeitures from other accounts

d. only a and b

e. all of the above

22. Which plan has benefit levels that are guaranteed by both the employer and the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC)?

a. money purchase plan

b. target benefit plan

c. cross tested plan

d. defined benefit plan

e. tax-deferred annuity

23. Advantages of defined benefit plans include all of the following, except

a.  defined benefit plans are easy to design and easy to explain to employees

b.  employees obtain a tax-deferred retirement savings medium

c.  retirement benefits at adequate levels can be provided for all employees regardless of age

d.  benefit levels are guaranteed both by the employer and, for some plans, by the PBGC

e.  for an older highly compensated employee, a defined benefit plan will allow the maximum amount of tax-deferred retirement saving

24. Which of the following is (are) true regarding the tax implications of having a money purchase plan?

a. employer contributions and plan earnings are tax-deferred for the employee

b. employers beginning a new plan are eligible for a $2,500 business tax credit in the first year to help with startup costs

c. the employer tax deduction is limited to 25% of total payroll of the employees covered under the plan

d. only a and b

e. only a and c

25. All of the following are true regarding money purchase plans, except

a.  most money purchase plan benefit formulas use a factor related to the employee’s service that favors owners and key employees

b.  nondiscrimination regulations provide a safe harbor for money purchase plans

c.  a plan benefit formula can be integrated with Social Security

d.  forfeitures, unvested amounts left behind by employees in their plans, can be used to reduce future employer contributions

e.  money purchase plan funds are generally invested in a pooled account managed by the employer or a fund manager selected by the employer

26. A tax-free rollover of a Roth IRA can be made to

a. another Roth IRA

b. a traditional IRA

c. a tax-deferred annuity

d. a and b

6. a and c

27. Ways that a Roth IRA differs from a traditional IRA include:

a. initial investment and earnings can be withdrawn tax-free

b. Roth IRA contributions can be made past age 59½

c. Roth IRAs are never subject to minimum distribution rules

d. a and b

e. a and c

28. Directors of Xenon Corporation are considering changing from a traditional defined benefit plan to another type of plan. They have asked you to explain the advantages and disadvantages of such a change. You explain that if Xenon Corp. converts to

a. a defined contribution plan, most or all plan assets would be credited immediately to vested employees

b. a cash balance plan, Xenon Corp. must increase the level of contribution to older employees

c. a cash balance plan, Xenon Corp. would no longer need actuarial services

d. only a and b

e. only a and c

29. Maxton Manufacturing, Inc., uses prior year testing to monitor discrimination in its Section 401(k) plan. Last year, the actual deferral percentage (ADP) for all nonhighly compensated employees at Maxton was 4%. This year, the ADP for highly compensated employees at Maxton can be as high as

a. 2%

b. 4%

c. 5%

d. 6%

e. 8%

30. The retirement plan for Bethel Shalom synagogue must adhere to ERISA reporting and disclosure rules.

a. true

b. false

31. Harper Engineering, Inc., offers several benefits to employees. Which of its benefits would be exempt from the ERISA reporting and disclosure requirements?

a. Harper pays for life insurance to provide for employee dependents if the employee dies

b. Harper gives each employee a small gift worth less than $5 on St. Patrick’s Day

c. Harper has a scholarship program that pays for employee tuition for industry-relevant continuing education, based on the employee passing the course, out of the employer’s general assets

d. b and c

e. a and c

32. Sentenal Corp., a restaurant supply company, is a closely held business. Tom Brady, founder and owner of the business is 59. Jeff Alcorn, age 53, is a key employee. The business employs 10 other rank-and-file employees earning an average of $30,000 per year. Both Tom and Jeff would like to contribute between $30,000 and $40,000 per year to a qualified retirement account. The advantages of using a profit sharing, age-weighted plan at Sentenal rather than a defined benefit plan include:

a. the age-weighted plan is simpler to install

b. the age-weighted plan is less expensive to administer

c. the age-weighted plan allows more flexibility in plan contributions

d. all of the above

e. only a and b

33. The law firm of Willie, Cheatum, and Howe is structured as a professional corporation that has three key employees between ages 39 and 43, two law clerks in their late 20s, and two secretaries, both age 31. The three key employees earn $500,000 per year. The law clerks are paid $30,000 and the secretaries are paid $15,000 annually. Turnover for both the law clerks and secretaries has been rather high, with at least one law clerk and one secretary leaving about every 6 months for the past year. Characteristics of the firm that would make a cross-tested plan a less than optimal solution for the firm include

a. the plan would have to be reconsidered at each new hire

b. the plan would provide relatively few advantages given the age of the highly compensated group

c. having more than one highly compensated employee makes coverage tests related to the plan more difficult to apply

d. all of the above

e. none of the above

34. Shannon McDougal will retire December 31 of this year. Shannon has worked for Shamrock Construction for 30 years. During his last 5 years, he earned $40,000, $47,000, $44,000, $46,000, and $48,000. Shamrock’s retirement plan uses a unit credit formula that awards employees 1.5% for each year of service using a financial average of the last 3 years. Shannon’s annual benefit will be:

a. $19,500

b. $20,250

c. $20,700

d. $21,150

e. $21,600

35. April Showers, age 30, opened the Unique Boutique 5 years ago. April has five employees ranging in age from 25 to 42. Earnings have fluctuated. Profits have been made only in the last two years. April should

a. not have a defined benefit plan because it is designed for older business owners

b. have a defined benefit plan because it will maximize April’s tax deduction

c. not have a defined benefit plan because there are a large number of years until the owner or employees retire

d. have a defined benefit plan because the owner can get $1,500 tax credit for establishing a new retirement plan

e. not establish a defined benefit plan because it is not likely April can meet the annual funding requirements

36. Mandy Thomas, age 47, is the owner of The Golf Pro Shop. Mandy wants to retire at age 55. The company adopted a defined benefit plan 2 years ago, 3 years after the business opened. Mandy wants to increase the amount that she contributes to her own retirement. Mandy can

a. increase the amount without limit

b. increase the amount within limits set by the Internal Revenue Code

c. increase the amount, but must also contribute to all other company employee accounts by the same proportion

d. increase the amount, but maximum benefit will be cut in half because the plan is less than 10 years old

e. she cannot increase her contribution

37. The owner of Whitney Corporation, Inc., earned $250,000 in 2013. In the same year, three highly compensated employees earned $100,000 each. The remaining 30 line workers earn about $20,000 each, for a total payroll of $600,000 for this group of workers. Whitney Corporation made the maximum allowable contribution to each employee’s money purchase plan in 2013. In 2013, what was the total amount that Whitney Corporation contributed to their money purchase plan?

a. $51,000

b. $150,000

c. $225,000

d. $276,000

e. $318,000

38. Orville Winbacher died last year at age 58, leaving $500,000 accumulated in a Roth IRA. Which of the following is (are) true?

a. monies in the Roth IRA must be distributed within a year of the Orville’s death either to his estate or to a beneficiary

b. distribution from the account can be made over the life of a designated beneficiary if begun within a year of Orville’s death

c. initial distribution of Orville’s Roth IRA funds to a beneficiary are tax-free, but subsequent investment returns on amounts distributed are taxable

d. a and b

e. b and c

39. George Flint was transferred to Chicago three years ago. When he left Detroit, he sold his home and put some of the money in a new Roth IRA. He and his wife, Wilma, have been renting a home for the past 3 years. Recently, the homeowner decided to sell. George is interested in buying the home. George can make a penalty-free withdrawal from his Roth IRA to help complete the purchase.

a. true

b. false

40.  Brothers Tim and Jim Shanton have asked you, their financial advisor, to settle a friendly quarrel between them. Tim argues that a Roth IRA and a traditional IRA are actuarially equivalent if $4,000 is available for investing on a before-tax basis, contributions to the traditional IRA are deductible, tax rates are expected to stay the same, and both have the same interest rates. So, it makes no difference which vehicle one uses to save for retirement. Jim insists that a Roth IRA is the better investment. You tell them

a. Tim is wrong; the tax deduction available for a traditional IRA allows more money to work for the contributor

b. Jim is wrong; at least for some low-income individuals, the traditional IRA is a better investment because of its relatively lower tax rates

c. Tim is right; the two investments are equivalent in every respect when considered at the end of an investment horizon at least 10-years long

d. Jim is right; the ability to make tax-free withdrawals from a Roth IRA gives a greater return even when contributions and interest rates are equivalent over time

e. both are right; the two investments are actuarially equivalent, but absence of a minimum distribution date and more liberal penalty-free withdrawal options may make the Roth IRA more attractive

41.  Which of the following statis is (are) NOT correct?

a. A durable power of attorney for health care is always a direct substitue for a living will.

b. A living will only covers a narrow range of situations.

c. A living will must generally meet the requirements of a formally drafted state statue.

d. Many well-intentioned living wills have failed because of vagueness and/ or ambiguities.

42. A __________ is a legal request for how one’s estate should be distributed upon death

a. Letter of last insturction

b. Will

c. Asset distribution

d. None of the above

43. The person transferring asssets to antoher person in a trust is called the

a. Trustee

b. Grantor

c. Executor

d. None of the above

44. A ______________ is a legal documemnt created by indiviudals to specify their preferences if they become mentally or physically disabled

a. Power of attorney

b. Living trustr

c. Codicil

d. Living will

45. A _____________ trust, the grantor is no longer the owner of the assets in the trust disabled

a. Living

b. Revocable living

c. Irrovocable living

d. Non of the abovel

46. Which of the following is not true regarding estate taxes?

a. They are dependent on the value of an estate

b. Any funds that are provided as a result of a life insurance policy are counted as part of the state for tax purposes

c. All the assets in an estae can be distributed tax-free to children or others

d. All of the above are truel

47. Which of the following situaitons would NOT constitute a transfer that comes within the gift tax statues?

a. Robin creates a trust under the terms of which her daughter is to get income for life and her granddaughter the remainder at the daughter’s death.

b. Robbie purchases real propety and has the title conveyed to himslef an to his brother as joint tenants.

c. Randal creates an irrovocable trust giving inocme for life to his wife and providing that at her death the corpus is to be distributed to his son.

d. Ray purchases a U.S. savings bond made payable to himself and his wife, Raquel. Raquel cashes the bond to be used for her own benefit.

e. Rose creates a joint bank account for herself and her daugher. There have been no withdrawls from the account.

48. A living trust is one in which the grantor creates an inter vivos trust that is funded with part of all of the grantor’s property.

a. True

b. False

49. Which of the following transfers qualify for the unlimited marital deduction?

a. Outright bequest to resident alien spouse

b. Property passing to citizen spouse in QTIP

c. Income beneficiary of CRT is a nonresident alien spouse (trust is not a QDOT)

d. Outright bequest to resident spouse who, prior to the decedent’s death, was a noncitizen bu who after the decedent’s death and before the estate return was filed, became a U.S. citizen.

e. b and d

50. The generation-skipping transfer tax (GSTT) is in addition to the unified gift and estate tax and is designed to tax large transfers tht skip a generation (i.e. from grandparent to grandchile). The purpose of the tax is to collect potentially lost tax dollars from the skipped generation. Which of the following transfers qualify for the unlimited marital deduction.

a. True

b. False

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