Complete Research Proposal: Topic Proposal with First Source

Complete Research Proposal: Topic Proposal with First Source Complete Research Proposal Outline of research proposal was reviewed by the professor and she made comments so that the things that were wrong can be addressed on the Complete Research Proposal. Please, read “Professor’s Comment” document to make the changes specified by the professor ( read comments on document) Also, read “Outline of Complete Research” in order to create the Complete Research Proposal. Remember to only utilize the links included on the previous stages of the research paper which are also inside this documents. Complete Research Proposal Home Applied Sciences homework help 4. Research Proposal Stage 4: Complete Research Proposal Take your approved outline, and use it to develop a full APA-style research proposal. Please keep in mind how important it is to use course terms (e.g., statistic, sample, research, and theory, variable) correctly, to demonstrate critical thinking in your selection and synthesis of relevant research articles, and to follow directions and use APA style precisely. It is vital to your success in this assignment that you are directly and thoroughly responsive to all feedback given to date. Format: Follow APA style precisely. Include all required elements (listed above) in the order listed above. Contents: · 1. Cover sheet 2. Abstract (150–200 words) 3. Key words (5–7 key terms) 4. Introduction section (1–2 pages) · Introduce the topic, establishing its context · Justify the significance of studying the topic · State your research question and hypothesis · Identify and briefly describe the proposed research design · Provide a “roadmap” of the rest of the paper 5. Literature Review section (3–7 pages of text) · Start with the level-1 APA-style heading “Literature Review” · Provide an introductory paragraph for the section · Include a level-2 APA-style subheading “Existing Research” · Summarize your five research articles topic by topic rather than study by study, covering these six topics for each article · Research question(s)/hypothesis (or hypotheses) · Theoretical framework/orientation · Research design · Sampling · Independent and dependent variable measurement · Key findings · Include a level-2 APA-style subheading “Summary of the Existing Research” · Synthesize the five studies in such a way as to lead logically to your hypothesis and research design in the next section. 6. Methodology section (3-6 pages) · Start with the level-1 APA-heading “Methodology” · Drawing from your literature review, articulate the hypothesis to be tested in your research proposal · Identify and describe the research design you will use to test your hypothesis, and explain why this research design is the most appropriate. Research designs options include experiment, survey, and content analysis. · Include a level-2 APA-style subheading “Sampling” · Propose an appropriate, specific sampling design · Identify your population · Identify your unit of analysis · Specify your targeted sample size · Include a level-2 APA-style subheading “Measurements” · Provide an introductory paragraph to this subsection · Include a level-3 APA-style subheading “Dependent variable” · Specify the name of your key dependent variable · Identify its categories and codes · Include a level-3 APA-style subheading “Independent variable” · Specify the name of your key independent variable · Identify its categories and codes · Include a level-3 APA-style subheading “Control variables” · One at a time, specify the name of at least two logical control variables · In the same order, identify their categories and codes · Include a level-2 APA-style subheading “Limitations”; cover causality, validity, reliability, and ethics · Discuss the prsed study’s potential strengths in at least one paragraph · Discuss the proposed study’s potential weaknesses in at least one paragraph 7. References Complete Research Proposal Home...



Get Help With Your Assignment If you need assistance with writing your assignment, our professional Assignment Writing Service is here to help!

The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

CHOOSE one (1) country from the three below and read the requirements regarding your assignment.

END-OF-SEMESTER TERM PAPER 1) CHOOSE one (1) country from the three below and read the requirements regarding your assignment. At this time you do not have to inform the professor which country you have selected; however, you should begin searching for information on your selected country in the table below: LIST OF SELECTED COUNTRIES WITH HIGH ADULT AND CHILD MORTALITY RATES • Bolivia • Afghanistan • Egypt 2) WRITE a paper (at least 1500 words) on the country that you selected. THE PAPER IS DUE AT THE END OF THE SEMESTER PER THE ANNOUNCED DUE DATE. See the Nursing Student Writing Guidelines Checklist for paper requirements. The paper must address the following (use the sections below as headings to organize your paper): Title of Paper (top of page 2, centered) Country with High Mortality Rates: [Name of Country] PAPER HEADING: [Level 1] Introduction: [Name of Country] Why selection? PAPER HEADING: [Level 2] Location/Geography PAPER HEADING: [Level 2] Population PAPER HEADING: [Level 2] Government PAPER HEADING: [Level 2] Economy PAPER HEADING: [Level 2] State of Health (Diseases/Violence/Accidents) PAPER HEADING: [Level 2] Culture/Traditional Medicine PAPER HEADING: [Level 2] Healthcare System and Delivery Include: Governmental health-related agencies and health regulatory organizations. [Level 3] An example is the Ministry of Health and/or other governmental agencies in the country that are health-related. Healthcare personnel and hospitals. [Level 3] Total number of nurses and physicians and/or the number of nurses and physicians per 100,000 population. In addition, the number of hospitals/hospital beds found in the country. Nursing education system and accrediting organizations. [Level 3] Number (and name) of schools that train nurses, if any. Note if nursing schools are accredited or standards are overseen by a governmental agency. Nursing associations. [Level 3] (if any). Do internet search. See also module 2 (Sigma Theta Tau International [STTI] and International Council of Nurses [ICN]) websites for links to nursing organizations in various countries. PAPER HEADING: [Level 2] Health Priorities Based on the above information and global health organizations, including non-governmental organizations, what are the health priorities for this country? Discuss. PAPER HEADING: [Level 1] Conclusion: Nursing Implications How can the nursing profession and nurses working in this country play a part in addressing those priorities? Discuss. PAPER HEADING: [Level 1] References [top of new page, centered] To get you started on your paper: ( Needed to be done for an A paper) a) Do internet and library searches using the name of your selected country and the sections listed above as “keywords.” b) Find the official websites of the global organizations/agencies and look up your selected country for the most current health information and statistics. Begin with the World Health Organization (WHO). c) Determine which organizations/agencies (United Nations, non-governmental, nursing) are active in your selected country. d) Investigate the situation of nurses and nursing (nursing personnel, nursing organizations/ associations, migration, etc.) in your selected country. e) Use the above headings in your paper. In-text citations and a reference list MUST be found in your paper. 3) In-text citations and a reference list MUST be found in your paper. See the Nursing Student Writing Guidelines Checklist for APA formatting.



Get Help With Your Assignment If you need assistance with writing your assignment, our professional Assignment Writing Service is here to help!

The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

Point-Counterpoint Essay Assignment

Point-Counterpoint Essay Assignment –  Use the outline you wrote last week to write your final essay this week. Drug issues are seldom black or white, right or wrong. Some of the most hotly debated questions of our day concern the use, misuse, and abuse of drugs. These issues deserve a good deal of critical thought. Use the outline you created last week (see separate instruction document for the outline) to construct a 3-5 page point/counterpoint (persuasive) essay using the arguments and sources you already researched. In the essay, you will present opposing points of view on the issue you already chose from the approved list. You should present both sides in a fair way by discussing them objectively and in equal detail. PLEASE READ THE GRADING RUBRIC FOR THIS ASSIGNMENT BEFORE YOU BEGIN. COMPARE YOUR ESSAY TO THE GRADING RUBRIC BECAUSE THAT IS WHAT WILL BE USED TO GRADE YOUR ESSAY. Essay Structure PLEASE READ THE SAMPLE ESSAY FOR THIS ASSIGNMENT BEFORE YOU BEGIN WRITING. COMPARE YOUR ESSAY TO THE SAMPLE ESSAY BEFORE YOU SUBMIT IT. A good essay will include the following: A title that clearly states the issue as a question. Take your title from the list of approved topics and just copy what it says there word for word. An interesting introductory paragraph that clearly introduces both sides of the argument and draws the reader in. It does not contain your opinion (do not say “I think, I believe, in my opinion”). The first section contains 3 strong arguments FOR the issue (the point). ***Each of the 3 arguments must cite a source. The second section contains 3 strong arguments AGAINST the issue (counterpoint). ***Each of the 3 arguments must cite a source. A closing paragraph in which you summarize both sides of the issue and then state your opinion on the issue. Writing Style and Format Write clearly and concisely. Use as few words as possible to make your arguments. Make your essay easy to read by eliminating extra unnecessary words, phrases and sentences. Get straight to the point. Do not try to sound formal. Write as if you were talking – very simply and easily. You are encouraged to submit your essay to the National University Writing Center for their expert guidance BEFORE you submit your final essay. You can learn a lot from a half hour session with them and it will improve your grade. Check your work. Use spell check and then carefully proofread your essay at least once to catch spelling, punctuation and grammatical mistakes. Read your essay out loud to catch any missing words, extra words and awkward-sounding sentences. Show your essay to someone else to see if they understand what you are trying to say. Take pride in your work and strive to be mistake-free. Do NOT use any quotations. Instead, paraphrase (write in your own words) the ideas or information and cite the source. Type in Times New Roman, Size 12 font, double-spaced, 1-inch margins all around.   References Use at least 4 total sources for your arguments. Each of the 2 arguments for and the 2 arguments against against must have at least one source. At least 2 of the sources must support your point (for). They must come from peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports or textbooks. At least 2 of the sources must support your counterpoint argument (against). They must come from peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports or textbooks. Information from the course textbook is allowed, but does not count as one of your four required sources above. Other additional sources are allowed, but they also do...



Get Help With Your Assignment If you need assistance with writing your assignment, our professional Assignment Writing Service is here to help!

The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

Why all nurses should be considered leaders and the secular approach to leadership in comparison to servant leadership

Journaling provides a valuable tool for recording, reflecting on, and reviewing your learning. This approach provides an opportunity for you to “connect the dots” and observe the relationships between and among activities, interactions, and outcomes. Unlike a personal journal of thoughts and feelings, this Leadership Journal is a record of your activities, assessments, and learning related to this academic experience. Journal entries should include a record of the number of hours spent with your nurse leader each week. Write a journal entry of 1,000-1,500 words on the subject of power, including the following: 1. Provide observations and thoughts on the activities in Weeks 1-2. · Why all nurses should be considered leaders and the secular approach to leadership in comparison to servant leadership 2. Identify your given “power” at your workplace or in your professional life. What is your greatest contribution in the lives of others? 3. Find three people with whom you interact professionally and ask them to affirm the influence you bring to their lives. How and why did you choose the individuals? What pearls of wisdom did they share that you had not considered? 4. Reflect on at least two things you learned from the “Issue of Power” video.



Get Help With Your Assignment If you need assistance with writing your assignment, our professional Assignment Writing Service is here to help!

The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

From a financial perspective, briefly describe the concept of a business

Chapter 1: Q1- From a financial perspective, briefly describe the concept of a business.  List and explain the differences between a business & pure charity.  Please respond to at least 2 classmates post. Student 1: Business is depending on buying and selling for profit. When a business is a personal or a company should determine goals that lead to develop the business and focus for the goal. In the other hand, Charity is depending on the provision of a range of humanitarian services to individuals in need. It is also known that a group of individuals, associations and institutions provide support and assistance to people with different needs, such as food, medicine and shelter, and others. Also, does not depend on achieving any financial gain; it is a work linked to good and charity to others. Student 2: My theory about business would be, business is a person or group of people idea about making an investment to improve his or their income. Charity is a person or more than one person is opinion to help others with some amount of money. Charity is helping others with their needs, and business is an idea of making more money. Chapter 2: Q2- If you could change ONE thing about our health care system, what would that be? Please provide detailed explanation.  Reply to the post of 2 classmates. Student 1: If I could change one thing in the U.S. health care system it would be that employer groups, payers, and government systems would all come together to make it simpler for Americans who are seeking health coverage. I am from a rural area in Kentucky and have seen so many people neglect their health because they could not go to certain providers and would have to travel hours to see a doctor in their network. These people know that they need to see a doctor, but may not be able to take off from work to travel to the doctors or may not have transportation to travel that far. This is a major reason that emergency rooms are overflowing with people because they have gone so long without seeing a doctor (because there are none in their network) so they can no longer stand the pain or sickness. I think if all providers could work together and be on the same playing field it would cut down costs and help people get the treatment they need in a timely manner. Student 2: If I could change one thing about the current health care system in America it would be accessibility for consumers. Accessibility to health care affects many different aspects of health care, such as health care cost, emergency room use, overall health of the nation, and many others. Many things affect one’s access to health care, including geographical location (rural vs. urban area), insurance coverage, and income. Improving the accessibility of health care can potentially lower total health care costs and even improve the overall health of the nation.



Get Help With Your Assignment If you need assistance with writing your assignment, our professional Assignment Writing Service is here to help!

The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

Retirement And Estate Planning

Retirement And Estate Planning   Retirement And Estate Planning Short questions answers. 1. Traditional 401(k) plans can be funded entirely through salary reductions by employees, enabling employers to bear no additional cost for employee compensation. True 2. A cash balance plan establishes a separate fund for each plan participant. False 3. Defined benefit plans provide more benefit security than do age-weighted or cross-tested plans. True 4. All group insurance programs offered to employees must comply with ERISA reporting and disclosure requirements. False 5. A cross-tested plan uses a fixed age-weighted formula. The plan is designed to maximize benefits for a firm’s highly compensated employees while providing whatever is necessary for remaining employees to satisfy nondiscrimination regulations. False 6. An employee cannot be covered under both a defined benefit and a defined contribution plan. False 7. A self-employed person with less than 10 employees can use a money purchase plan to fund his or her own retirement. True 8. Unlike a traditional IRA, a Roth IRA contribution is not restricted by active participation in an employer’s retirement plan. True 9. An early distribution penalty can be assessed on Roth IRA withdrawals. True 10. Account holders with more than one Roth IRA can treat them as separate accounts when calculating tax consequences of distributions from any of them. False 11. A trust cannot provide for creditor protectioninsurance True 12. Including a spendthrift clause is recommended for children with money management or substance abuse problems. True 13. All of the following are true regarding tax implicatons of cash balance plans, except a.  employer contributions to the plan are deductible when made b.  taxation of the employee on employer contributions is deferred c.  the plan is not subject to minimum funding rules of the Internal Revenue Code d.  certain employers who adopt a cash balance plan may be eligible for a business tax credit up to $500 e.  employees may make voluntary contributions to a “deemed IRA” established under the plan 14. Which of the following is (are) true regarding elective deferrals in a Section 401(k)? a. elective deferrals are not subject to Social Security and Federal Unemployment payroll taxes b. elective deferrals are always made on an after-tax basis c. if the company elects to have a safe harbor plan, elective deferrals must meet the actual deferral percentage test d. account funds can be withdrawn without a premature distribution penalty if the employee becomes disabled or dies e. since employees elect the amount of funds to defer, nondiscrimination tests do not apply to elective deferrals 15. Which of the following types of employer plans are exempt from most or all ERISA provisions? a.  plans of state, federal, or local governments or governmental organizations b.  plans of churches, synagogues, or related organizations c.  plans maintained solely to comply with workers’ compensation, unemployment compensation, or disability insurance laws d. all of the above e.  none of the above because no employer plans are exempt from ERISA provisions 16.  Irrevocable Life Insurance Trusts (ILIT) are primarily designed to ensure that the death benefit is excludable from the insured’s federal gross estate. a. true b. false 17. Are all of the items listed below reasons why having a will is important? (True or False)  True The state directs      how the decedent’s property is transferred A spouse’s share of      the decedent’s estate may be equal to a child’s Children may be      treated equally although not equitably May require the      appointment of an administrator who will usually have to furnish a surety      bond, thereby raising the costs of administration The administrator of      the estate is determined by the court 18. Paul owns...



Get Help With Your Assignment If you need assistance with writing your assignment, our professional Assignment Writing Service is here to help!

The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).