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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

A discussion of the Cognitive Affective Processing System as a way of explaining how the performer’s personality interacts with the environment.

Many theories and intervention techniques in performance psychology have a cognitive-behavioral approach. The interactional model of personality which describes behavior as the sum of personality (p), the environmental situation (s), and the interaction (i.e., Behavior = P + S + P x S) is generally a better predictor of success than the environmental situation or the personality alone. However, in many situations the environmental conditions are so influential that the stable personality characteristics will have little effect. This is known as the personality paradox. In this assignment, you will discuss the Cognitive Affective Processing System as a way of explaining both the personality paradox and how a performer’s personality interacts with the environment to produce a behavioral response. General Requirements: Use the following information to ensure successful completion of the assignment: Instructors will be using a grading rubric to grade the assignments. It is recommended that learners review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment in order to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment. Doctoral learners are required to use APA style for their writing assignments. The APA Style Guide is located in the Student Success Center. This assignment requires that at least two additional scholarly research sources related to this topic, and at least one in-text citation from each source be included. Directions: Write an essay (1,250-1,500 words) in which you will discuss the Cognitive Affective Processing System as a way of explaining both the personality paradox and how a performer’s personality interacts with the environment to produce a behavioral response. In your paper, include the following: An explanation of how the personality paradox might occur. A discussion of the Cognitive Affective Processing System as a way of explaining the personality paradox. A discussion of the Cognitive Affective Processing System as a way of explaining how the performer’s personality interacts with the environment.



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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

Does drug use cause delinquency or does delinquency cause drug use?

Prepare a 5 page paper (excluding title and reference pages), citing at least two scholarly sources other than the textbook, which details the significance of drug use among juveniles in the United States. Outline types of drugs that juveniles use. Analyze the relationship between drug use and delinquency. Does drug use cause delinquency or does delinquency cause drug use? What risk factors do they have in common? Provide your opinion of the most effective means of combating youth drug abuse.



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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

What treatment technologies would you use in a residential program for juvenile probationers?

Provide a 4-6 page paper (excluding title and reference pages), using at least three outside scholarly sources. If you were superintendent of a training school, which treatment methods would you use? Why? What treatment technologies would you use in a residential program for juvenile probationers? What type of staff members would be effective in carrying out the treatment method you have chosen? Treatment Technologies Cognitive Programming Behavioral Modification Peer Culture Influence You can use any other treatment technologies to include one listed above.



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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).