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inflation rate

inflation rate inflation rate.  This signature assignment is designed to align with specific program student learning outcome(s) in your program.  Program Student Learning Outcomes are broad statements that describe what students should know and be able to do upon completion of their degree. The signature assignment may be graded with an automated rubric that allows the University to collect data that can be aggregated across a location or college/school and used for program improvements. Purpose of Assignment The purpose of this assignment is for students to synthesize the concepts learned throughout the course,  provide students an opportunity to build critical thinking skills,  develop businesses and organizations, and solve problems that require data. Assignment Steps Case 1: Scenario: Cloud Data Services (CDS), headquartered in Memphis, provides information technology services, specifically application hosting services in the cloud for several clients in the southern United States. CDS hosts software applications on their network servers. While CDS has achieved great success and customers rate CDS’ services highly, lately, some customers have been complaining about downtime on one of the primary network servers. The given dataset, found in the Signature Assignment Excel® Template, contains the downtime data for the month of November. inflation rate Use the data analytics skills learned in Week 3 and analyze the downtime data. Make a short presentation to CDS’ management including the following: Using used Microsoft® Excel® Pivot Tables,  construct a frequency distribution showing the number of times during the month that the server was down for each downtime cause category. Develop either a bar chart or a pie chart that displays the data from the frequency distribution in part 1. Evaluate the mean, median, standard deviation, and variance of the downtime minutes for the month of November. Case 2: Note: Although you will be studying  the concept of CPI in more detail in your ECO/561 class; for the purpose  of this case, you need to use the concepts of percentages, percentage  increase/decrease, and creating and interpreting line charts to compute  the inflation rate in the US economy and determine which time period  experienced the highest inflation rate. Follow the steps below to complete this signature assignment: Search for the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis (FRED). On the home page of the website, you will see a search box. Type in CPI- AUCSL in the search box and press the return key. The first result of the search will be “Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers: All Items.” Click on this result link. Click on the Download link and download the data in Excel®. On the Excel® file, the second column gives you the CPI values for each period starting from 1947. Go to the last row and notice the last date and the CPI value. Go back 6 years from this last date. For example, if the last date is  2016-11-01, then the date 6 years ago would be 2010-11-01. Copy and paste this six years data into a separate Excel® tab. Excel Using Excel®, calculate the percentage change in CPI from a year earlier for each observation. Begin with the observation one year later than the first observation. To make this calculation, click  on the blank cell next to the observation corresponding to that date and  then use Formula 1, located in the Signature Assignment Excel® Formulas document. (note that in Excel®, the symbol for multiplication is *), where t-1 is the first observation and t  is the observation one year later. For example, to find the percentage change in CPI from 2011-11-01 to 2010-11-01, refer to Formula 2 located in the Signature Assignment Excel® Formulas document. Convert this value to a...



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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

Why do I need help to write my Essay?

For any person in high school, college or University, you may be struggling with your assignments, classwork and all. If urgent action is not taken, you may end up failing o many of your classes, getting low grades, and even worse, a low GPA, which will ultimately affect your future studies and work. You will want to avoid that at all costs, and that is why you need a seasoned essay writer to help you pass. However, there have been claims that essay writers are dangerous and should be considered as a cheating practice. Well, some writers excel and are professionals at delivering your requirements, and it would be unfair to say all of them are unprofessional. These few writers are experienced in multiple fields and will deliver exceedingly well in any discipline. Why use assignment solutions writers? You want to get excellent, high grades, and with experienced essay writers’ help, you will certainly get it done. Probably, you have several courses, each with several assignments so that you end up having too much work to deliver in very limited time. As a student, you need time to do other activities, such as job, family, and friends. This is the major reason for seeking help writing your essay. Other reasons include: Your English is poor, given you are not a Native English speaker You have a medical challenge, which limits you from writing, but you still need to continue with your education You are just not thrilled about the whole writing idea. Research and all are a problem for you You are just doing the course to meet the requirements. This is not a field of interest to you, but you still need to pass You need more information about a specific topic, need to strengthen your introduction, thesis statement and conclusion of your You need more resources. ALSO READ:BEST CUSTOM PAPER WRITING SERVICE ONLINE Regardless of your needs, you want the best grade possible, and with an essay writer, you are assured of that. Advantages of using an essay writer Besides taking benefit of the years of experience these writers have, you get your essay completed by professionals in that specific field, people who have up to master’s degrees and have a wealth of knowledge in that field.  Further benefits include Free time to do other activities as professionals write your essay You can use the essay submitted as learning material for you! You get your essay at the exact time you need it. Professionals will write your order within the shortest time possible. You get an excellent grade with these professional writers. It is what they do and excel in! Now only one question remains! Where do I get help from? Where Do I Find a reliable Essay Writer? Of course, the thought of having one specific writer handling your work is excellent. But when that person is not from a reputable company, or any company at all, there is no guarantee that they will do the kind of job required. They could just disappear with your money, or just fail you at the last moment. At a writing company, the writers there are vetted and made to commit to the service and will 98% of the time deliver a quality paper within the deadline regardless of the urgency. The writers are all qualified! What are the risks? With the idea of why, where and how to get help, the question remains is what is the risk? Well, working with unverified writers means all imaginable risks. However, for a writing agency, the writers have been vetted to be...



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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

Is it legal to buy essay papers online?

First, is it safe to buy essays online? Absolutely! The only problem is that you have to choose the right company to buy from. The industry has grown and gotten many scam companies which will deliver low-quality papers or just not deliver at all. You need to look out for the company history and reviews. Bad reviews, or reviews which are too good are always a red flag! Now the question is, is it legal to buy papers? The answer is straightforward. First, you as a student are required to do the paper, and for some reason such as lack of time, the complexity of the paper, or lack of resources, you need help. To get that help, you go online and search for a reputable company to help you complete the task. ALSO READ:BEST CHEAP ESSAY WRITING SERVICES ONLINE You pay a writer to do the paper just for you. He/she has task to create unique original content on your behalf, a service which you pay for. Once you have the paper, it is your property, and only you as the client have the right to put your name on it. Purchase Agreement Any time you purchase anything, it becomes yours legally, and so does the paper we write for you! The actual debatable question is whether it is immoral, which is entirely upon you. For instance, would you rather get failing grades for a course you are actually doing to attain that degree? If the task is too difficult for you, what would you rather do? Get help online and even use the paper for your revision, or go ahead and do it and eventually fail? These are some of the reasons students get essay writing help by buying papers online. In conclusion, getting essays, online courses, research papers, and dissertation writing services online is completely legal! Go ahead and ace that paper by getting service here!



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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

Humanities Paper Guidelines

Writing a Humanities Paper Topic Your paper should be a critical thinking paper. Don’t just inform your audience of something. Remember to choose a topic and relate it to today. For example, in light of women in Egyptian society, don’t give an overview but consider why women were often considered equals during this time but eventually lost that right in other cultures. In addition, go beyond the topic. If you choose a person, focus on their achievements, such as their literary, religious, scientific achievements, and so on, don’t give a biography. If you focus on an artist, focus on one or two works of art. And remember your topic must be from the Prehistory to the Renaissance. Organization Write your paper such that it is easy to track the arguments you present. The thesis introduced in the first paragraph will have supportive arguments, each written in a separate paragraph. Topic sentences -which introduce the argument of each section- are very useful to your readers since they elaborate what to look for in the evidence that will be cited within each paragraph. If you are unsure, follow the PIE to develop your paragraphs. ALSO READ:TOP U.S RESEARCH PAPER WRITING SERVICE ONLINE P (point) This is your topic sentence. Ask yourself “what is my point?” I (illustration) This is your “expert” supporting your topic sentence. This is your outside source, your statistics, paraphrased material, direct quotes, or summaries. E (explanation) Don’t end your paragraph with your outside sources since your reader is more interested in your argument, not your outside sources. Evidence You should cite and use evidence appropriately . And proper citation is easy: give Author’s last name and page numbers where possible (Smith 3) and otherwise, internet sources, should be appropriately cited using the latest version of MLA. Further, refer to a handbook or the library which has a handout available online. You need to cite evidence to support all major points. Avoid plot summary.



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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

Best food to eat before and while studying this semester

Best Food to eat Best Food to eat when studying: Many students find themselves getting distracted easily, or studying without retaining as much knowledge as they would want. Besides the apparent moods or studying position, other factors determine how effective your study time is. What you eat is one of the significant determinants! It is essential to eat healthily and just enough. Otherwise, you will be too full and sleepy to study. Apples– As the saying goes, an apple a day keeps the doctor away! These are just the best fruits to eat regardless of who you are! The vitamins, healthy sugar and fiber will go along way in helping your brain concentrate. Bananas– These are full of Vitamins, potassium, and fiber with low salt and are pretty cheap! Carrots– just like bananas, these are cheap, have plenty of fiber with low salt, plus proteins, natural carbohydrates, and calcium, potassium. What’s best is that you can just chew them raw! Oranges– These provide you with plenty of vitamin C, calcium, potassium, healthy carbohydrates and several other vitamins. Oranges are also high in sugar meaning ample supply of energy. Notably, this sugar is not as much as snacks thus won’t disrupt your studies! Peanuts– these “nuts” which are actually legumes are packed with proteins. These help in retention of information. These legumes also have high levels of carbs which help re-energize your body! ALSO READ:BEST ESSAY WRITING SERVICES ONLINE Oatmeal– is high in fiber and low on fat and calories. Delicious! More Foods! Green Vegetables–  Most people know that veggies should be eaten cooked, but raw veggies give you vitamin C and antioxidants. Get some broccoli and peapods! String Cheese-Cheese is a better alternative to snacks, given the proteins it brings into your body! Yogurt– yogurt supplies you with protein and little sugar- add the different flavors, and you have the perfect snack! Coffee–Moderation here! Too much of coffee disrupts your mind Blueberries-Simply a superfood which increases motor skill function. They are a treat, especially when frozen! Dark Chocolate -When consumed in moderation, dark chocolate provides antioxidants and will help you with natural stimulation. Production of endorphins is stimulated too, giving you the motivation and mood you need. Eggs any sort of cooked eggs provide protein and choline which boosts memory and brain function. Avocado Technically a fruit, but with fats, so not too many of them! They will improve blood flow and lower your blood pressure Best Food



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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

WHY COLLEGE STUDENTS MAKE UNHEALTHY FOOD CHOICES

WHY COLLEGE STUDENTS MAKE UNHEALTHY FOOD CHOICES WHY COLLEGE STUDENTS MAKE UNHEALTHY FOOD CHOICES 1. Fast food is cheaper   Healthy food is expensive to buy and cook. Many students believe that, yet it is a myth! It is untrue! 2. Drinking Habits   With all the freedom that comes with being in college, you may want to drink a lot and cook less 3. lack of the time to cook   Cooking a healthy meal is time-consuming and you probably don’t have the patience to wait that long or even cook for that long. 4. Lack of know-how May students donk know the risks associated with eating junk and fast foods. Some may also lack the knowledge on how to cook   5. Less healthy options in the Cafeteria   Due to the urgency with which food is needed, many cafeterias serve junk food, so there is no difference in what one eats out and that in the cafe! So unfortunate. But you need to eat healthy to avoid issues now and in the future!   Eat healthy! Get tips on the best meals to eat as you study here You can also make an order for your essay on this topic on our website.    FOOD CHOICES. 5 of the top reasons WHY COLLEGE STUDENTS MAKE UNHEALTHY FOOD CHOICES



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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).