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Empowerment group for young females

Details of the Group: *Empowerment group for young females who have been separated from their    parents due to deportation.   · Topic -Youth empowerment, empowering youth that has experience parents being deported and/or are in the process of deportation. · Keywords: family deported, self-esteem, family dynamics, effect on education · Meeting once a week · Age range (12-18) · 12 sessions · Meeting located at a community center · Open Group · Have a social worker apart of the team · Have flyers in the community · Reach out to a diverse group of guest speakers to help with the group · Have resources for group members Outline Plan for Group Sessions (approximately 2-3 pages) Conceptualize the development of the group over the life span of the group. In particular, describe some of the basic details and intervention strategies from the first session to the end session of the group. For example, in your outline describe exercises or education materials you will use, and the general topics you plan to cover, if applicable. Consider how these intervention strategies you choose address culturally relevant needs of your group members.



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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

Pharmacotherapy in treating addiction

Pharmacotherapy In treating addiction to alcohol, opioids, cannabis, and cocaine, doctors might prescribe a drug to the client to help with the detoxification process. These prescribed drugs might be given a short or long time depending on individual need. In some cases, these drugs block receptors so that if the client uses the drug, no feeling of “high” would occur (e.g. methadone blocks heroin). In other cases, the client takes the prescribed drug knowing that he/she will become ill if also taking the illicit drug or alcohol. Occasionally, the drugs used in pharmacotherapy can be addictive (e.g. methadone). To respond to the discussion questions, please complete the assigned reading including Agonist Therapies: One Person’s Cure Is Another’s Addiction p. 418 of your text. 1. Do you think that agonist therapies should be continued despite the danger that some people become addicted to the agonist drug? Support your position using the text or other academic resource. 2. Choose one of the treatment drugs listed in the 18.2 Table (in text, p. 415) and research its use in treatment for alcohol, nicotine, opioid, cocaine, or cannabis treatment. Explain its action in the brain (e.g. does it block receptors). 3. Would you recommend the drug that you researched for use in pharmacotherapy? Support your opinion with information from your research. with this: Please substitute the following question for what is in the Unit 9 Discussion currently: Sometimes, addiction to certain classes of drugs that clients need psychopharmacological intervention. There are drugs that prevent another drug from working properly and these are called agonist drugs. They bind to the neural receptor in the brain and act the same as the drug of choice (methadone is an agonist for heroin). Clients take the agonist drug to quiet those receptors from sending pain or strong “use” urges to the brain. Users experience a mild sensation that is similar to the high that they experienced with the drug of choice. Agonist drugs help clients to slowly reduce their use of the drug of choice. A good example of this is Chantix (agonist) used to help smokers reduce their reliance on nicotine. Then, there are some drugs that block the high and drug effects entirely. These are called antagonist drugs. These drugs completely block the high and cognitive effects that a user feels when using the drug of choice. However, it does not reduce the urge to use as agonist drugs do. A good example of this is Naltrexone (antagonist) used to quickly reverse the effects of opioids. Using the information from your reading in Chapter 33, identify and discuss at least one agonist and one antagonist drug. Explain how they can be used in an effective drug treatment program. Then, provide your opinion as to whether you think these would be effective or not.



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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

Final Project Case Studies

Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resource on your own before you bid. Main references come from Balkin, R. S., & Kleist, D. M. (2017) and/or American Psychological Association (2014). Assignments should adhere to graduate-level writing and be free from writing errors. I have also attached resources given to complete the assignment. Please follow the instructions to get full credit. I need this completed by 09/28/19 at 7pm. The case number you will focus on is #2. You will complete only part 1 of the worksheet attached. Assignment – Week 5 As you learned in Week 1, for the Final Project, you will research one counseling intervention in relation to an identified mental health issue and apply your findings to a case study. This week, there are a number of decisions for you to make to solidify your project. You will complete Part I of the Final Project Worksheet.  The first step is to choose the case study that you plan to utilize in your project. You will notice that some case studies include more than one potential client. For example, in the case of Jim, the 14-year-old adolescent, you may opt to focus on the family or the teen. After you identify the case and choose the client, identify one presenting problem or mental health issue for counseling focus. Now, put your counselor hat on. You have an identified client and a presenting problem. Where do you go from here? As a counselor, you have an ethical responsibility to provide competent practice. There is an expectation that you will utilize interventions that are supported with empirical research.  So, your next step is to identify an intervention that you would like to use with your client.  For your project, you will investigate current counseling research related to the intervention in order to make an informed decision about evidence-based practice. To launch your research, you will formulate a research question to guide your investigation. To Prepare · Review the Final Project Worksheet Part 1 media program found in the Learning Resources for this week · Review the Final Project Case Studies found in the Learning Resources for this week and choose one of the four case studies to use for your Final Project. School counselors should choose Case 1 or 2. · Consider the case study and identify your client and the mental health issue you will focus on · Choose one intervention that you would like to further investigate for possible use with the client · Review the Final Project Worksheet Template found in the Learning Resources and use this template for this Part 1 Assignment. Final Project Assignment · Complete Final Project Part 1 of the Final Project Worksheet. Required Resources Required Readings Document: Final Project Case Studies Document: Final Project Worksheet Required Media Laureate Education (Producer). (2017c). Final project worksheet part 1 [Audio file]. Baltimore, MD: Author. Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 10 minutes. In this recorded audio, Dr. Laura Haddock describes the portion of the Final Project due this week, with a review of the remaining components and corresponding due dates. Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript Week5FinalProjectCaseStudies.docx Week5FinalProjectWorksheet.docx WAL_COUN66



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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

The Eugenics Archive

Choose initial posts made by 2 separate people; comment on them; present your views.   In order to receive the maximum number of points go beyond merely agreeing or disagreeing in your response. In other words, bring to the Discussion Forum new information that respectfully challenges your peers to think further about what he or she posted. When you begin, type the name of the person you are replying to. Make an analysis of the other person’s work/thinking. Make sure to cite 2 sources in both your initial and response posts, cite from the Image Archive on the American Eugenics Movement and the Dudley and Gale (2002) journal article to demonstrate support for your viewpoint. Respond to 2 peers The expectation is that response posts will add factual information to the discussion, whether in agreement or disagreement with the peer’s original post.  75-100 words Reply to: The Eugenics Archive is an important reminder that what is socially acceptable is not always morally right. With detailed pictures, 1920’s propaganda, and legislature, the Eugenics Archive tells the deplorable story of the Eugenics movement in America that led to the involuntary sterilization of 3000 individuals. In an effort to create an ideal, white America, scientists inspired by the work Francis Galton convinced law-makers, clergy, and the general public that Darwinism must be helped along through weeding out undesirable traits, such as neural and racial diversity. Reading about the eugenics movement, pioneered by Galton, and systematically applied by Charles Davenport was a painful experience (Dudley & Gale, 2002). Hearing the term “feeble-mindedness” over and over brought me to tears (Dudley & Gale, 2009). My oldest daughter Evelyn (14) is a kind and thoughtful beauty. She loves theater and possesses natural musical talent, performing in several local productions at an elite children’s theater in Spokane. When Evelyn was 3 she was formally diagnosed with Autism. Her autism severely limits her ability to communicate like her typically functioning peers. Thankfully, Evelyn lives in 2020 and not in 1920. Similarly, imagining the mass murder of children in Nazi Germany that were considered to be undesirable made me feel ill (Dudley & Gale, 2002). Dudley & Gale (2002) recount the systematic and efficient medical murder of Germany’s disabled and undesirable children. They point out that psychiatrists aided in the euthanasia of 200,000 people (Dudley & Gale, 2002). Influenced by America’s eugenic ideology, many German doctors and psychiatrists committed these acts without guilt. Both America and Germany applied science in an evil, bias, and inhumane way. As I studied the actions and attitudes of the perpetrators of the eugenics movement, I felt like these men, scientific authorities of their day, were reaching through time and threatening the value of my daughter. However, as I reflect on these atrocities as I sit in the peace and presence of Jesus, I know that is not possible. Her value is innate and unchangeable. The men and women that passed judgments upon those that they deemed “less than” were scared, self-protecting, and finite people. I am reminded of the words of Jesus as he hung on the cross, beaten and broken by his creation, “Father, forgive them for they do not know what they are doing” (Luke 23:34, NIV). Anything that could actually hurt Evelyn; sin and death, was defeated at the cross. Mankind will continue to pass judgments on one another, attempt to play God with scientific application, and war against themselves, but I will continue to love. Dudley, M., & Gale, F. (2002). Psychiatrists as a Moral Community? Psychiatry Under the Nazi’s and its Moral Relevance. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 36,...



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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Book  Corey, G. (2017). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (10th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning   Required Textbook Readings: Chapter 9 – Behavioral Therapy Chapter 10 – Cognitive Behavior Therapy Required Multimedia: Watch: The Case of Stan – Behavioral Therapy -In MindTap on Cengage site. Under Chapter 9: How do I practice what I’ve learned Watch: The Case of Stan – Cognitive Behavior Therapy -In MindTap on Cengage site. Under Chapter 10: How do I practice what I’ve learned Instructions: To at least one peer, reflect a critical understanding of his/her post and advance the discussion with thoughtful statements surrounding to what degree you agree with him/her and why. Include at least one reference to course material. When you begin, type the name of the person you are replying to. Make an analysis of the other person’s work/thinking. Support your comment with a reason, an example, or –preferably– by a reference from the material you’ve read in this course. Respond to 1 peer The expectation is that response posts will add factual information to the discussion, whether in agreement or disagreement with the peer’s original post.  75-100 words Reply to:   I can agree with Ellis’s assumption on REBT on the basis for emotional disturbance lays in irrational beliefs and thinking. I think I can only agree partially with Ellis on the notion that events themselves do not cause emotional and behavioral problems. I do agree that our cognitive evaluation of events can lead to emotional disturbance. Traumatic events though such as plane or car crashes, rape, being attacked or robbed are events that cannot be controlled and our cognitive evaluation can be compromised and possibly unable to fully comprehend these events in times of great stress or trauma. I can agree that our cognitions and behaviors create a “cause-and-effect” relationship (Corey, 2017, p. 271) Just this weekend in church the sermon was aimed at the story we attach to our wounds in life and how that affects our outlook on life. I do believe that we do present ourselves with the choice to respond to different events, but that is not the full reason as to why one can find themselves in emotional disturbance. CB is also an introspective therapy that is aimed at catching those distorted thoughts to restructure those thoughts, to “identify dysfunctional thinking, then weigh evidence for or against that thought.”(Corey, 2017, p. 285) I can accept the notion that cognitive therapists should assist clients to almost a full extent. I do not agree with the specified questions in collaborative empiricism (Corey, 2017, p. 285) which can leave room for therapists to bring the patients to biased conclusions about their thoughts. There should be assisting in the restructuring and examination of distorted beliefs to avoid further distorted beliefs but the clients need to bring themselves to those conclusions, not have them be given to them, but collarborated on instead. References: Corey, G. (2017). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. Cengage Learning



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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).

Achieving better habits

Using the online library sources available at Amridge University, construct a brief 2-3-page paper on achieving better habits. In your paper, be sure to address the following: 1. Discuss your personal experiences with achieving better habits; 2. Describe what the textbook and other sources suggest for achieving better habits; and 3. Suggest what changes will need to be made in someone’s life to achieve better habits. Follow the APA Publication Manual 6th Edition. If you would like, you may email me a draft before the due date, and I will evaluate it without assigning a grade so that you make adjustments before submitting it. Text Book: Franken, Robert E. Human Motivation, 6th Edition n Motivation, 6th Edition. Thomson Wadsworth (2007).



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The occurrence of breast cancer in men compared to women differs, developing 8-10 years later in men (Fentiman et al., 2006; 2009). The association of MBC with older age may mean that reported mortality due to breast cancer, as distinct from other age-related comorbidities, may be underestimated. Furthermore, Spiers and Shaaban (2010) note that, although in western countries breast cancer rates appear to be declining, the statistics quoted refer only to female breast cancer. These authors compared the incidence of 350 current MBC diagnoses annually in the UK, with figures reported in the late 1970’s and the start of the decade. They found an increasing rate of MBC incidence in the UK comparable to that observed in the United States by Stang and Thomssen (2008). The above discussion raises the question of why male breast cancer incidence appears to be increasing in the UK?
For non BRCA 1 or 2 carriers, age is a significant risk factor for the development of MBC (Cutuli et al., 2010; Fentiman 2009). Therefore, as the proportion of people in the UK classed as old or very old continues to rise (Office of National Statistics (ONS), 2015) it could be argued that a comparable rise in the incidence of MBC can be expected. Brinton et al. (2015) investigated additional risk factors and concluded that, out of 101 MBC sufferers and 217 controls, MBC risk was increased by levels of endogenous oestradiol, although no association was found with circulating androgens. Interestingly, the risk of MBC conferred by high circulating endogenous oestradiol was consistent with that associated with postmenopausal female breast cancer, reported by Kaaks et al. (2014), Dallal et al. (2014), Falk et al. (2013) and others. Brinton et al. (2015) controlled for variables that may confer risk of MBC such as cigarette smoking but did not control for known risk factors that include BRCA 1/ 2 status, previous history of gynecomastia and diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.
These are significant omissions that undermine the reliability of Brinton et al.’s (2015) findings. Sufferers of Klinefelter syndrome, for example, have a high ratio of circulating oestrogens compared to androgens (Weiss et al., 2005). Given that, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2016), the incidence of this condition affects 1 in 500 males, (which is higher than the incidence of MBC) it is reasonable to argue that the risk factor that contributed to MBC in Brinton at al.’s (2015) study could be attributed to this condition, and not high circulating oestradiol levels with no influence from androgens, as suggested.
Fentiman (2009) summarises research that has associated working with hydrocarbons or in hot environments with MBC. Other studies have examined if the trend towards increased Body Mass Index (BMI) observed in populations of western countries such as the US and UK may be linked to the incidence of MBC. Brinton et al., (2008), for example, found that a BMI of more than 30 conferred a risk of MBC, but this study was based upon a small sample size and thus provided limited statistical power to substantiate the authors’ findings. A case-controlled study of 156 men diagnosed with MBC conducted by Ewertz et al., 2001 found no significant associations with parity and age at first childbirth, which is unsurprising given the gender of their sample population. These authors associated the risk of MBC with obesity and diabetes which is not supported by consensual research demonstrating that this link is unsubstantiated (Giovannucci, et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ewertz et al. found no consistent pattern in the association between cigarette smoking and MBC, which is challenged by later studies of female breast cancer. These include Dossus et al. (2013), Xue et al. (2011), Luo et al. (2011) and McCarty et al. (2009).