Ann, a community nurse, made an afternoon home visit with Susan and her father. After the death of her mother, Susan had growing concerns about her father living alone. “I worry about my father all the time. He is becoming more forgetful and he has trouble seeing. Mom used to take care of him. I am not sleeping and I am irritable around him. Yesterday I shouted at him because he wouldn’t let me help him with his laundry. I felt terrible! I am at my wits’ end! My brothers and sisters do not want to put dad in a nursing home but they are not willing to help out. As usual, they have left me with all the responsibility. I work part time and have two small children to care for.” Susan’s father, Sam, sat quietly with tears filling his eyes. He was well nourished and well-groomed but would not make eye contact. Nurse Ann noticed that the house was clean and orderly. A tray in front of the TV had the remains of a ham sandwich and glass of ice tea. Mail was piled up, unopened on a small table near the front door. There was only one car in the driveway and the yard was in need of attention.
What questions does Orlando’s theory guide the nurse to consider in caring for Susan and Sam?
Develop a family plan of care from the perspective of Orlando.
Explore the 1950 and 60’s in the United States:
Explore was happening in the United States during this time (culture, social, economics, struggles)
What did nursing look like during this time (what were their jobs like, responsibilities, dress, autonomy, respect)
What is the most influential accomplishment in nursing theory from the 1950’s and 1960’s?
Power Point should include at least 4 outside references and the textbook. It should include title and reference slides and

consider the views of human nature that are revealed in reading LaoTzu and Machiavelli.

English 101 Essay #1 LAMC
Write an essay of approximately 4 pages (1,000 words) in which you consider the views of human nature that are revealed in reading LaoTzu and Machiavelli. What does each say about what people are inclined to do when they are not restrained by the government? What conclusion does each author reacch regarding a leader’s proper role in maintaining a society where people will live together in an orderly way? Make specific references to the readings to identify important statements that define the authors’ philosophy of leadership.
Also, include references to at least one other source that provides an example of leadership in our world today that seems to support the ideas of either LaoTzu or Machiavelli. This outside source should be a full-length (at least 500 words) article from a major metropolitan newspaper or magazine. Recommended sources are the New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Wall Street Journal, Chicago Tribune and The Atlantic magazine.
Begin by reading LaoTzu and Machiavelli closely to be sure you understand their main points. Plan your essay carefully so that you develop a clear thesis and organize your essay directly in support of that central idea. Use specific references to the additional article you have chosen to illustrate how a contemporary leader seems to apply principles like those of either LaoTzu or Machiavelli.
Your essay must be written in standard MLA format with a Works Cited page and appropriate in-text citations to identify all of sources of information taken from the text and the newspaper or magazine article. Proofread your final draft carefully to correct any problems with grammar, spelling and word usage. The essay is due on March 7.

Import plan

Authentic Assessment: Strategic Plan Project – Due Sunday, December 16, 2012

This authentic assessment is a comprehensive paper in which you will create astrategic planfor an existing product or service that your multinational employer wants to launch into a foreign country. Your paper should draw from the information in your textbook— specifically, from chapters 6 and 7—as well as from the outline provided below, plus relevant external resources.
Please choose an existing product or service currently being sold. Then, choose the country into which you will launch this product or service. You will need to provide both the name of the product or service and the country you have chosen to meby the end of the second week of class.
Hint:Choosing a well-known product or service will give you access to more information than choosing an obscure product or service.

What is Strategic Planning?

The termstrategic planningrefers to a coordinated and systematic process for charting the overall course and direction of an enterprise or organization for the purpose of optimizing potential. For a profit-making business, this process involves questions such as “What should we sell?” “To whom should we sell it?” and “How can we beat or avoid the competition?” Strategic planning can also involve other questions, such as of ownership and capital structure.
The main purpose of the strategic planning process is to ensure that the course and direction of the enterprise or organization are well-thought-out, sound, and appropriate, and to ensure that the limited resources of the enterprise or organization (time and resources) are sharply focused in support of the course and direction. The strategic planning process involves both strategy formulation and strategy implementation.
As director of your corporation’s strategic planning department, you have been asked by your CEO to devise a viable strategy to launch your product or service into the country of your choice. In order to complete the plan and convince your CEO of the efficacy of your strategy, you will need to provide the following sections of a strategic plan:

1. External Situation/Environmental Assessment

a. market segment analysis:Such an analysis helps you to determine your best market opportunities, how to focus your marketing efforts to make the most of those opportunities, and how to attain dominant market position in niches. It helps to tailor your strategies to each segment of the market. For each segment, consider the following:

    • needs served
    • market preferences
    • size and growth rate of the market
    • your company’s share in the market
    • number of potential customers
    • significant recent events that could impact your offering

b. competitive evaluation:This section should include the number of competitors in the market and their market share. Evaluate both direct and indirect competitors, providing the following in your analysis:

    • total scope of competitive offerings
    • competing products or services and the market segments in which you will compete against each vendor, with a list of the benefits for customers from your product or service
    • financial information
    • SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats)
    • competitors’ strategies

c. technology assessment:Such an assessment informs you on the state of technology in the environment in which your business operates. Include this information only if technology is important in your industry. If it is, examine efficiency, costs, and availability. Be sure to include both the technology you use and the technology you provide.
d. supplier markets assessment:This section should examine inputs to your business. Suppliers are not only vendors of merchandise, materials, and supplies, but also those who provide labor, benefits, and access to key skills. Only evaluate those markets in which quality, price, or availability has an important impact on your business. Look at such factors as volume and trends, buyer and seller concentration, significant recent events, and capacity use.
e. current economic situation:Include details on the economic situation of the country into which you are launching your product or service. Only include information relevant to your business.
f. significant government regulations:Discuss any regulations of particular importance to your business. Remember to include not only the regulations that could inhibit your business, but those that could be advantageous.

2. Internal Situation

a. corporate mission statement:Provide your company’s mission statement.
b. key corporate strengths:What does your company do well? What is it known for within the industry? Key areas most often identified include management, human resources, capital resources, competitive advantages, customer satisfaction, marketing/sales performance, costs/pricing, and innovation. Identify at least three areas of strength in your corporation.
c. key corporate weaknesses:Upon which areas could your company improve to make it more competitive? Identify at least three areas of weakness in your corporation.

3. Assumptions

a. assumptions for targeted market segment:In this section, include the following types of information:

    • threats to the market:What factors might cause the total market to shrink? These are factors that affect the entire market and are not specific to your business.
    • competitive assumptions for targeted market segment:In this section, identify the key strategic moves you expect each competitor to make over the short term (1–2 years) and long term (3–4 years). Include such moves as changes in strategic focus, development of competencies or technologies, and changes in distribution channel. Do not overlook possible competitive exits and entries.

b. other important assumptions:Consider key assumptions about your product or service, such as those related to

    • technology:If technology is important to your industry, make assumptions regarding future developments or the lack thereof. As in the technology assessment, focus your comments on efficiency, costs, and availability.
    • supplier markets:Make assumptions regarding future developments in supplier markets where price, quality, and/or availability has an important impact on your business. As in the supplier markets assessment, focus your comments on volume, buyer and seller concentration, significant events, and capacity utilization. Also include price and availability forecasts.
    • economy:Make assumptions about future general economic conditions (e.g., gross national product [GNP], inflation, employment). Also, make assumptions about price and activity levels in key markets served.
    • government regulations:List and describe any changes in regulations that you expect to be of particular importance to your business.

4. Opportunity Screening

a. perceived opportunities:In this section, list all potential opportunities, including those related to new market development, new product development, new distribution channels, and new pricing. Consider developments outside your market area, such as in productivity, finances, management, and personnel. Categorize each perceived opportunity aspoor,sound, orunclear. Evaluate the opportunities for both the short term (1–2 years) and the long term (3–4 years).
b. perceived threats:In this section, list those events and developments that could threaten the wellbeing of your business. Discuss the potential impact and the probability of each occurrence over the short term (1–2 years) and the long term (3–4 years).

5. Market Entry

a. market approachHow will you approach your target market? Will you use a

    • global approach
    • regional/local approach
    • integrative approach
    • e-business approach

See pages 210–217 in your text for more information about these alternatives. Provide a thorough and detailed rationale for your choice.
b. entrance strategiesHow will you enter your chosen country? You could do this via

    • exporting
    • franchising
    • contract manufacturing
    • offshoring
    • outsourcing
    • turnkey operations
    • management contracts
    • joint ventures
    • fully owned subsidiaries
    • e-business

See pages 217–233 in your text for more information about these alternatives. Provide a thorough and detailed rationale for your choice.

6. Conclusions

a. measures of success:What does success look like for your product or service? Typical measures include

    • financial measures:How do you look to the owners or shareholders? Typical measures include sales (in units and/or dollars), cash flow, profitability, growth, market share, break-even, receivables, debt level, margins, and shareholder value.
    • customer measures:How do your customers see you? Typical measures include number of customers, customer satisfaction index, repeat orders, price levels, external quality, percent on time, and backlog.
    • internal measures:How are you managing your day-to-day activities? Typical measures include orders/inquiries, productivity, efficiency, capacity utilization, cycle time, cost level, internal quality, warranty cost, backlog, and employee skill level.
    • measures of innovation/learning:How are you improving and learning to create value? This is an area that is infrequently measured but that is key to companies’ continued success and the renewal of their businesses. Some useful measures are sales from new products, employee training, process development time, product introduction time, total cost of quality, and average patent age.

b. Will your strategic plan ultimately succeed?In your opinion, will your plan succeed? Based on all the data you collected and the analysis you conducted, do you think your plan will bring your company the intended results?
c. supporting arguments:Why or why not?
There are additional pieces to a corporate strategic plan. These include

    • budget
      • operating budget
      • investment budget
      • cash flow budget
      • five-year operating budget
  • goals, objectives, and vision
    • corporate goals
    • corporate objectives
    • corporate vision
  • action plans
    • action items
    • named personnel involved
    • time (days)
    • budget
    • start/completion dates
  • schedules and agenda
    • time worksheet
    • personal annual schedule
    • planning schedule
    • planning agenda

    We included this additional information so that you would have a comprehensive overview of the strategic planning process. However, because this information is typically company confidential,you will not be responsible for providing it as part of your strategic plan. You will only be responsible for the numbered sections outlined above.

In completing this assignment, please include only information pertinent to your goals. For example, if you are planning to set up a fully owned subsidiary in Argentina to sell specialty chocolates, do not include details about Argentina’s bauxite reserves. You may discuss Argentina’s climate or tourism industry, but only as they relate to your specialty chocolates and your strategic plan for launching this product into Argentina.

Grammar and Organization

Try to ensure the following:

  • timeliness of project submission (There will be a 10 percent penalty per day for late submissions).
  • good sentence and paragraph structure
  • clarity of expression and presentation of ideas
  • grammatically correct construction and correct spelling and punctuation

Documentation and Formatting

Please conform to the standards of formatting and documentation, including proper citations and references as shown in the American Psychological Association (APA) style manual.
Provide your paper in narrative format, not in outline or question/answer format.Include a cover page with the name of the project, your name, the course designator, and the date.
Note: I reserve the right to reformat papers to bring them in line with these requirements:

  • The strategic plan should be 14–15 pages in length. Minimum 14 pages means 14 full pages and not 14 and one-half pages. All information in the paper must be relevant to the issues you are required to cover.
  • The paper should be typed, double-spaced, in 12-point Arial or Times New Roman font, with one-inch margins all around.
  • No outline or bullet formats will be accepted. The paper must be in narrative format.
  • The paper must be prepared using a Word processing software (submit paper in Linux ODT, rtf, or Microsoft Word), as well as a PDF file (please see my comments under “Course-related Q&A” in the Conferences for more detail about this).
  • Footnotes are mandatory. Include only the author name and page number in the body of paper (e.g., Smith, p. 44). Do not put the full footnote at end of the page, but at the end of the paper.
  • The body of the paper should not include pictures, graphs, or lists. If you need these to support your facts, place them at the end of the paper as an addendum, referenced in the body of the paper. They will not count toward your page length.
  • The paper should have a references list for all sources used in the preparation of the project, including for each entry the author, title, publisher, city and state of publisher, year of publication, and either page numbers or URL of the material referenced (do not use Wikipedia).
  • The paper should be posted in the Assignments area of the classroom as an attachment.

Strategic Plan Grading Rubric

Includes market segment analysis, competitive evaluation, technology assessment, supplier markets assessment, information on current economic situation, and significant government regulations Does not discuss external situation or only discusses it minimally Provides discussion of external situation that is unclear, confusing, or contradictory; neglects to include some components outlined in the paper requirements Provides clear and comprehensive discussion of all elements of external situation as they relate to your strategic plan
Includes details of your company’s mission statement, key strengths, and key weaknesses Does not discuss internal situation or only discusses it minimally Provides discussion of internal situation that is unclear, confusing, or contradictory; neglects to include some components outlined in the paper requirements; identifies fewer than three strengths and three weaknesses Provides clear and comprehensive discussion of all elements of internal situation as they relate to your strategic plan; identifies three or more strengths and three or more weaknesses
Includes details of your assumptions for your market segment and other important and relevant assumptions Does not discuss key assumptions or only discusses them minimally Provides discussion of key assumptions that is unclear, confusing, or contradictory; neglects to include some components outlined in the paper requirements Provides clear and comprehensive discussion of key assumptions as they relate to your strategic plan
Includes a detailed discussion of perceived opportunities and threats related to your strategic plan Does not discuss perceived opportunities and threats or only discusses them minimally Provides discussion of perceived opportunities and threats that is unclear, confusing, or contradictory; neglects to include some potential opportunities or threats Provides clear and comprehensive discussion of perceived opportunities and threats as they relate to your strategic plan
Includes a detailed discussion of strategic alternatives for approaching your target market and a discussion of strategic entry, with a thorough and detailed rationale for each choice Does not discuss strategic approach alternatives or strategic entry, or only discusses them minimally Provides discussion of strategic approach alternatives and strategic entry that is unclear, confusing, or contradictory; neglects to include a thorough and detailed rationale for each choice Provides clear and comprehensive discussion of strategic approach alternatives and strategic entry as they relate to your strategic plan
Includes a detailed discussion of measures of success, along with a detailed analysis as to why your strategic plan will succeed or fail; includes solid supporting arguments to make your case Does not discuss measures of success or why your strategic plan will succeed or fail, or only discusses them minimally Provides discussion of measures of success that is unclear, confusing, or contradictory; neglects to state why you believe your strategic plan will succeed or fail and/or neglects to provide convincing supporting arguments Provides clear and comprehensive discussion of measures of success and why you believe your strategic plan will succeed or fail; includes solid arguments that help make your case
Demonstrates use of libraries and other information sources to locate, select, and evaluate information for your strategic plan Uses fewer than four valid sources other than the assigned text Uses four to seven valid sources other than the assigned text Uses eight or more valid sources other than the assigned text
Is proofread, edited, and free of overt grammatical and typographical errors; adheres to submission requirements; includes references and bibliography Does not meet submission requirements; does not use appropriate tone and/or style for audience; has proofreading and/or grammatical errors that detract from the readability of the paper; has major problems in sentence structure; does not include citations or references Meets submission requirements for the most part; uses tone and style that are generally appropriate for audience; contains noticeable proofreading and/or grammatical errors (however, the errors do not detract from the readability of the paper); may have rigid or unvarying sentence structure; includes partial citations and references Fully meets submission requirements; uses tone and style appropriate for audience; contains no noticeable proofreading or grammatical errors; uses effective and diverse sentence structures and diction; includes complete citations and references

Change in principle; change in method of accounting for long-term construction

P 20-2 Change in principle; change in method of accounting for long-term construction
Pyramid Construction Company has used the completed-contract method of
accounting for construction contracts during its first two years of
operation, 2009 and 2010. At the beginning of 2011, Pyramid decided to
change to the percentage-of-completion method for both tax and financial
reporting purposes. The following table presents information concerning
the change for 2009–2011. The income tax rate for all years is 40%.
issued 50,000 $1 par, common shares for $230,000 when the business
began, and there have been no changes in paid-in capital since then.
Dividends were not paid the first year, but $10,000 cash dividends were
paid in both 2010 and 2011.
1. Prepare the journal
entry to record the change in accounting principle. (All tax effects
should be reflected in the deferred tax liability account.)
2. Prepare the 2011–2010 comparative income statements beginning with income before income taxes.
Prepare the 2011–2010 comparative statements of shareholders’ equity.
(Hint: The 2009 statements reported retained earnings of $36,000. This
is $60,000 – [$60,000 × 40%].

List three provisions in the corporate charter that affect takeovers.

Suppose you decide (as did Steve Jobs and Mark Zuckerberg) to start a company. Your product is a software platform that integrates a wide range of media devices, including laptop computers, desktop computers, digital video recorders, and cell phones. Your initial market is the student body at your university. Once you have established your company and set up procedures for operating it, you plan to expand to other colleges in the area and eventually to go nationwide. At some point, hopefully sooner rather than later, you plan to go public with an IPO and then to buy a yacht and take off for the South Pacific to indulge in your passion for underwater photography. With these issues in mind, you need to answer for yourself, and potential investors, the following questions.
What is an agency relationship? When you first begin operations, assuming you are the only employee and only your money is invested in the business, would any agency conflicts exist? Explain your answer
If you expanded and hired additional people to help you, might that give rise to agency problems?
Suppose you need additional capital to expand and you sell some stock to outside investors. If you maintain enough stock to control the company, what type of agency conflict might occur?
Suppose your company raises funds from outside lenders. What type of agency costs might occur? How might lenders mitigate the agency costs?
Suppose your company is very successful and you cash out most of your stock and turn the company over to an elected board of directors. Neither you nor any other stockholders own a controlling interest (this is the situation at most public companies). List six potential managerial behaviors that can harm a firm’s value.
What is corporate governance? List five corporate governance provisions that are internal to a firm and are under its control.
What characteristics of the board of directors usually lead to effective corporate governance?
List three provisions in the corporate charter that affect takeovers.
Briefly describe the use of stock options in a compensation plan. What are some potential problems with stock options as a form of compensation?
What is block ownership? How does it affect corporate governance?
Briefly explain how regulatory agencies and legal systems affect corporate governance.

Crime and Ethical Standards

Assignment 2: LASA 1: Crime and Ethical Standards
Since you have demonstrated your knowledge about criminal justice so well, the chief of police has another assignment for you. Chief Draper wants you to review a specific case and assess the arresting officer’s conduct. To prepare your report, you consider certain factors, such as the societal factors that may have influenced the suspect’s behavior, the role of the government in terms of protecting both society and an individual’s rights, and the ethical standards that govern law enforcement.
Here’s What Happened . . .
Centervale police officer Lance Marconi responded to a call for service from a high-end retailer, who reported that an unkempt woman wearing disheveled, dirty, and torn clothing left the store without paying for items she selected while shopping in the Misses Clothing Department. The store manager reported that the woman failed to respond to any verbal prompts made to her by store associates.
As Officer Marconi drove toward the store, he noticed a woman matching her description walking along the side of the road, carrying what appeared to be clothing. Once the officer reached the location of the woman, he recognized her—Mary Jones—as being an individual he had arrested several times before for public drunkenness, resisting arrest, possession of a controlled substance, felony larceny, and prostitution. Officer Marconi anticipated that this could be a very challenging situation because Jones did not like law enforcement, tended to be aggressive, and had, in the past, run as soon as she saw a police cruiser. Marconi called for backup and asked Jones to stop as he stepped out of his vehicle. She started to run, but he caught up with her very quickly.
Jones struggled with Officer Marconi on the ground, although he managed to humanely subdue her and place her in handcuffs. Officer Marconi called the incident into Communications and placed the suspect in his cruiser. He then gathered the clothing items dropped by the suspect along the side of the road. He noticed the items had price tags displaying the name of the retailer who reported the initial incident to law enforcement. During transport, Jones yelled and became very agitated.
When she arrived at the police department, Jones was very upset. She tried to hurt herself by banging her head on the desk as the officer tried to interview her about the alleged larceny report. It was clear to Officer Marconi that Jones was under the influence of drugs, so he discontinued the interview process. Marconi requested emergency medical services, and Jones was taken by ambulance to the hospital.
Here’s What You Need To Do . . .
After carefully reviewing the case details, prepare a 2- to 3-page report assessing whether the procedures (both legal and ethical) were followed appropriately. Use the Argosy University Online Library resources to find articles that support your assessment. You may also use your textbook. Your report should address the following:
Select one of the crimes Jones has been previously charged with (e.g., public drunkenness, resisting arrest, possession of a controlled substance, felony larceny, or prostitution).
What type of crime is it (misdemeanor or felony)?
How is this crime defined in the state in which you live?
How might societal factors have influenced this suspect’s crimes?
Analyze how the purpose of government and the social contract might protect the rights (e.g., safety and security) of the suspect in this case.
Compare the various roles Officer Marconi must play in this case. Consider that Marconi must enforce the law and protect the suspect from harm at the same time.
Analyze how a law enforcement officer’s actions might be influenced if he or she is arresting an “unsympathetic suspect or victim,” specifically a suspect or victim who the officer has arrested before or who engages in a high-risk lifestyle, such as substance abuse, drug dealing, or prostitution. Justify whether Officer Marconi acted accordingly.
How might the criminal justice professional maintain ethical standards when working with diverse populations?
Once charged, what rights does the defendant, Jones, have?
Be sure to organize your paper into clear and concise paragraphs. You should read the grading rubric before starting your paper to ensure you cover all the material appropriately. Include an APA-formatted reference page that links to your in-text citations.

Determine whether or not government agencies such as the National Security Agency (NSA) or Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) would be good candidates for cloud computing.

Many organizations have now adopted or begun to offer cloud computing. This type of computing has advantages and disadvantages that may vary from organization to organization.
Select two (2) organizations in which you are interested, and use the Internet and Strayer Library to research the advantages and disadvantages of cloud computing for the selected organizations. Use the Internet to research the characteristics of organizations most likely to use cloud computing.
Write a three to four (3-4) page paper in which you:
Determine whether or not there are definite characteristics of organizations that are more likely to use cloud computing than other organizations. Provide a rationale for your response.
Examine the major advantages and disadvantages of cloud computing for the two (2) selected organizations. Recommend whether or not each of the selected companies should use cloud computing. Provide a rationale for your response.
Determine whether or not government agencies such as the National Security Agency (NSA) or Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) would be good candidates for cloud computing. Provide a rationale for your response.
Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:
Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

What is a Cross Cultural Intelligence Mindset?

Discussion board… must include original questions with reply… no special format or cover page needed no ref needed.. must answer in your own words… answers must be 130 words min and 150 max…
1.  Self managed work teams can be a great way to bring employee’s together to collaborate as a team can be effective if the managers hire the right individuals. Self managed teams are given the autonomy to plan, monitor and solve their day to day projects for the company. In my opinion, having a diverse team helps bring more ideals to these teams which can provide a more effective output for the company. Self managed work groups can also have negative outputs because some individuals do not understand how to come together as a team and realize that they aren’t always right.
2.  What is a Cross Cultural Intelligence Mindset?
When we start developing a global view, when we start focusing on the needs and requirements of the international market rather than only domestic, when we start paying full attention to the needs of a culturally diverse audience, we can assume that we have developed a cross cultural intelligence mindset. A cross cultural intelligence mindset promotes global thinking, continuously work to expand cross cultural knowledge and perspective. If an organization aspires to capture the global marketplace, its leadership, employees, stakeholders, values etc. needs to surround itself with a multicultural audience. It is essential for the organization to expand its cross-cultural perspectives through working across cultures. Having a cross-cultural intelligence mindset will help the organizations to improve their performance and service the customers better, this can happen by picking up cross-cultural best practices which will lead to improved alignment, productivity, and revenues in an international market.
3.   This video goes into the importance of involving stakeholders in decisions. It discusses letting people know their roles and accountability in the decision making process. Another benefit of involving the stakeholders, i find, is that it will help you find the ones that will not go along with the decision. These people may take it upon themselves to leave the organization of they are not going to support the decisions being made. While this may cause some issues due to less manpower, it will help in the long term by allowing you to hire someone that would automatically support any decisions made because they have no idea of how things were prior. This remind me of when I was hired as a District Manager for a beverage company. The team was under performing. When I informed the team of the changes we would be making. some employees ended up leaving. While it was tough, it provided me with an opportunity to interview and hire people that would work well with the new changes. It took a while but we were able to start delivering goals in a branch that had gone three years without delivering their targets.
4.  Management and communication are an integral part of an effective change management plan.  Helpful management and comprehensive communication during any change are independently problematic tasks however, combining the two together can be intimidating. The task goes both ways and may require a combination of the different types of managers and employees. While new leaders may come into the company with a refreshing view, there always seems to be some employees that feel detached from the new managers.  This detachment may limit overall efficiency and inadvertently hinder the employees to see the bigger picture that the company is aiming for.
For myself, I tend to be more direct with my communications because I do not want anyone to misconstrue what i am trying to say. I have learned over the years that some people really appreciate my way of communicating and some do not. For the people that do not enjoy the way I relay information, I have developed a method of softer communication. I will break issues down into bite sized bits and make sure they are comfortable with what I am saying before we move on. I also tend to answer more questions for these individuals as well.

innovation in the textile and clothing industry

Sewing up the competition – innovation in the textile and
clothing industry
Manufacturing doesn’t get much older than the textile and
clothing industry. Since the earliest days when we lived in caves
there’s been a steady demand for something to wrap around us to
keep warm and to protect the more sensitive bits of our anatomy
from the worst of the elements. What began with animal hides and
furs gradually moved into a more sophisticated activity with
fabrics woven from flax or wool – and with people increasingly
specializing in the business. In its early days, this was very much
a cottage industry – quite literally people would spin wool
gathered from sheep and weave simple cloths on home-made looms. But
the skill base – and the technology – began to develop and many of
the family names we still have today – Weaver, Dyer, Tailor, for
example – remind us of the importance of this sector. And where
there were sufficient cottages and groups of people with such skill
we began to see concentrations of manufacturing – for example, the
Flemish weavers or the lace makers in the English Midlands. As
their reputation – and the quality of their goods – grew so the
basis of trading internationally in textile and clothing was
established. The small-scale nature of the industry changed
dramatically during the Industrial Revolution. Massive growth in
population meant that markets were becoming much bigger whilst at
the same time significant developments in technology (and the
science underpinning the technology) meant that making textiles and
clothing became an increasingly industrialized process. Much of the
early Industrial Revolution was around the cotton and wool
industries in England and many of the great innovations and
machinery – such as the Spinning Jenny – were essentially
innovations to support a growing international industry. And the
growth of the industry fueled scientific research and led to
developments like the invention of synthetic dyes (which allowed a
much broader range of color) and the development of bleaching
agents. There’s a pattern in this in which certain manufacturing
innovation trajectories play a key role. For example, the growing
mechanization of operations, their linking together into systems of
production and the increasing attempts to take human intervention
out through automation. Of course, this was easier to do in some
cases than others – for example, one of the earliest forms of
programmable control, long before the invention of the computer,
was the Jacquard punched card system which could control the
weaving of different threads across a loom. But actually, making
material into various items of clothing is more difficult, simply
because material doesn’t have a fixed and controllable shape – so
this remained increasingly a labor-intensive process. By the
twentieth century the industries had become huge and
well-established, with growing international trade in raw materials
such as cotton and in finished goods. The role of design became
increasingly important as basic demand was satisfied and certain
regions – for example, France and Italy – began to assume strong
reputations for design. Branding became increasingly important in a
world where mass communications began to make the telling of
stories and the linking of images and other elements into
advertising which fueled demand for clothing as much more than a
basic necessity purchase. Mass production methods and the
scientific management approaches underpinning them diffused rapidly
– and in the case of clothing assembly which remained a
labor-intensive process – led to the quest for lower wage cost
locations. So, began the migration of clothing manufacture around
the world, visiting and settling in ever cheaper locations across
the Far East, through much of Africa and Latin America to its
present home in China. Today this is a global industry embracing
design activities, cutting and processing operations, assembly,
distribution and sales – all fueled by a huge demand for
differentiation and personalization. This is an industry in which
price is only one element – non-price factors such as variety,
speed, brand and quality matter. And it’s an industry dominated by
the need for high-frequency product innovation – fashion
collections no longer run along the old seasonal track with winter
and summer collections. In some cases, the range is changed every
month and innovation in information and communications technology
means that this cycle is getting shorter still. All of this has
shaped an industry which is highly networked across global ‘value
chains’ and coordinated by a few major players. Much of the ‘front’
end of the industry is about major brands and retail chains whilst
the ‘backroom’ operations are often small-scale subcontractors
often in low wage cost areas of the world. Like so many industries
it has become somewhat footloose and wandered from its origins –
leaving behind only a small reminder of its original dominance.
Compared with countries like India and China, today’s European
clothing industry is a small player on the global stage. There are
some exceptions to this – and they underline the power of
innovation and entrepreneurship. Just because the dominant trends
lead in one direction does not mean that there isn’t scope for
someone to spot and deploy ways of bucking this trend. One such
player was a young clerk working in a small clothing retailing
business in northern Spain. Frustrated with his career prospects
Amancio Ortega Gaona decided to strike out on his own and in 1963
invested his savings – the princely sum of $25 – into a small
manufacturing operation making pajamas and lingerie. In classic
fashion, he peddled (and pedalled – his earliest transport was a
bicycle!) his wares around the region and built the business over
the next ten years and then decided to move into retailing as well,
opening his first shop in the north-western town of La Coruna in
1975. Things have moved on somewhat since then. Industria de Diseno
Textil – Inditex – the holding company which he established – is
now worth around $8 billion and has just opened its 2000th store in
Hong Kong. Active in nearly 70 countries this textile and clothing
business has eight key brand groups, each targeted at particular
segments or product types – for example, ‘Pull and Bear’ for
children, ‘Massimo Dutti’ for older men and women or ‘Oysho’ in
lingerie. Best known of these is ‘Zara’ – a global brand with
strong design and fashion identity running through both the clothes
and the stores in which they are sold. Its clothes combine stylish
designs with a strong link to current high-fashion themes with
moderate prices. As Lotte Freddie, fashion editor of the Danish
daily newspaper Berlingske Tidende, commented ‘If you want a
classic, Italianate look in tune with current styles and at a
reasonable price go to Zara’. Zara’s successful growth is not
simply a matter of low cost or of standardization but rather of
innovation. The company has become a leader by exploiting some of
the key non-price trends in the industry – for example, variety and
product innovation. For example, over 10,000 different clothing
models are created and sold every year – this is most certainly not
a case of ‘one size fits all’ or of long-lasting product types!
Ortega has taken the entire system for creating clothes and built a
business – and originally did so in an area which did not
previously have any textile tradition. At an early stage in the
development of the manufacturing business he moved back into
textile finishing operations to make sure that the colors and
quality of the material he used to make the clothes were up to
scratch. Not only did this give better quality control but it also
opened up the road to offering exciting and different fabric
designs and textures. There are now 18 textile designing and
finishing operations in the group as well as the clothing
manufacturing. A major part of the company’s success comes from a
strong commitment to design – they employ over 200 designers and
make extensive play of this commitment. It’s a theme which doesn’t
stop with the clothes themselves but also extends to the
presentation of the stores, their window displays, their
catalogues, Internet advertising and so on. Part of the
headquarters building in Arteixo La Coruna, Spain, contains 25
full-size shop windows with display platforms and lighting which
allow the team to see what real store windows would look like – not
only under normal conditions but also on rainy days, at night and
so on. Another key aspect of Zara’s success is the flexibility
which comes from having a very different model for manufacturing.
Around 2500 employees work directly in manufacturing operations –
but behind them is a much larger workforce spread across villages
and small communities in Spain and northern Portugal. Once the new
design has been approved the fabric is cut and then distributed to
this network of small workshops – and these represent an outsource
capability delivering a high degree of flexibility. Pre-cut pieces
and easy to follow instructions are given to workers in what is
still largely an informal economy – and their output then flows
back into the massive Zara distribution center like tributaries to
a fast-flowing river. (This is not a small operation – the center
has around 200 kilometers of moving rails on which the products
flow. Highly automated and with extensive in-line quality checking
the process transfers the incoming pieces into production lots
which are then allocated to a fleet of trucks for fast shipment,
mostly by air from the nearby airport at Santiago de Compostella.)
Needless to say, this places significant demands on a highly
flexible and innovative co-ordination system which Zara have
developed in-house. In this way, they make use of a model which
dates back hundreds of years (the idea of industrial districts and
clusters) but use twenty-first century technologies to make it work
to give them huge flexibility in both the volume and variety of the
things they make. Where competitors such as H&M and Gap must
start planning and producing their new lines three to five months
before goods finally make it to the stores, Zara manages the whole
process in less than three weeks! Their flexibility is also based
on rapid response and extensive use of information and
communication technologies. At the end of the day as the customers
leave their 950 stores around the world the sales staff use
wireless handsets to communicate inventory levels to the store
manager who then transmits this intelligence back to Spain as a
feed into the design order and distribution system. This gives an
up-to-the-minute idea of what is selling – and what isn’t – so the
stores can be highly responsive to customer preferences – which
colors ‘work’, which themes are popular, which designs aren’t
hitting the spot. But it’s not just following the market – Zara can
also push the game by making sure that no model is kept on sale for
more than four weeks – no matter how well it is selling. This has a
strong impact on their brand – they are very original and
design-led – but it puts even more pressure on their ability to be
agile in design and manufacture.
Question: You have been hired as a consultant to a small
clothing manufacturer who wants to emulate the success of Zara and
Benetton. She wants advice on an innovation strategy which takes
the key lessons from these successful firms. What would you

The U.S. economy imported more goods and services than it exported last year.

Below are six statements. Indicate whether each one pertains to microeconomics (MIC) or macroeconomics (MAC).
“Last year, IBM was the U.S. business with the most patents registered with the U.S. government.”
“The U.S. economy grew at an annual rate of 4.2 percent last year.”
“Snow in the northeast has reduced the number of holiday shoppers at clothing stores and clothing prices are falling.”
“More workers are being hired by the nation’s businesses.”
“The U.S. economy imported more goods and services than it exported last year.

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Below are six statements. Indicate whether each one pertains to microeconomics (MIC) or macroeconomics (MAC).
“Last year, IBM was the U.S. business with the most patents registered with the U.S. government.”
“The U.S. economy grew at an annual rate of 4.2 percent last year.”
“Snow in the northeast has reduced the number of holiday shoppers at clothing stores and clothing prices are falling.”
“More workers are being hired by the nation’s businesses.”
“The U.S. economy imported more goods and services than it exported last year.”
“New discoveries in medicine are leading to strong growth in the biotech industry.”
Below are six statements. Identify whether each is a positive or normative statement.
The national economy grew at a 6.2 percentage rate in the last quarter as the economy continues to recovers from the past recession.
The unemployment rate fell to 5.7 percent this month, and is expected to fall to 5.5 percent next month.
The rate of inflation should be reduced to zero to maintain the value of the U.S. dollar.
The government should take action to reduce the prices of prescription drugs charged by drug companies.
Interest rates for home mortgages are at their lowest rate in thirty years.
The Federal government should increase income taxes on the wealthy to reduce the budget deficit.
Suppose a consumer has a daily income of $48 and purchases just two goods, A and B. The price of A is $8 and the price of B is $6. In the graph below, draw the budget line for the consumer. Indicate the area of the below graph that is attainable given the income and the area that is unattainable.
The production possibilities curve below show the hypothetical relationship between the production of food and clothing in an economy.
What is the marginal opportunity cost of producing the second unit of clothing?